Cognitive Linguistics -Metaphor-
Specifically regarding Question 2: If you are discussing the final in a group, each person in the
discussion group must pick a different proverb to analyze on their particular final.
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Question 1
(3 pages)
Early in the semester, Professor Lakoff introduced the notion of cascades, and introduced the notion with
the example cascade for the schemas and metaphors in LOVE IS A JOURNEY. Here is that cascade:
Given the sentence: Their relationship is on the rocks.
The specific metaphor is:
RELATIONSHIP ENCOUNTERING DIFFICULTIES IS A BOAT ON THE ROCKS
We need the following knowledge about the source domain:
• A boat is a vehicle for the travellers
• Boat on the rocks can’t move
• Boat can be damaged and may be less solid
• Travellers can be hurt
• There is a possibility of getting off the rocks and continuing the journey
• It takes work to get the boat moving again
Metaphorical mappings for the specific metaphor:
• Relationship ! Boat
• Lovers ! Travelers
• Lasting potential of relationship ! Solidity of boat
• Common life goals for two lovers ! Common destination for two travellers
• Progress toward common life goals ! Motion along a path towards a common destination
• Difficulties in relationship progress ! Impediments to motion forward, namely rocks
• Continuing relationship progress ! Continuing the journey
We also need the following additional metaphor, evoked by the source domain above:
PSYCHOLOGICAL HARM IS PHYSICAL HARM
• Psychologically harmed lovers ! Physically harmed travelers
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Target domain entailments given the above metaphors:
• Lovers may be psychologically harmed
• The likelihood that the relationship will last is lowered
• The relationship may continue if steps are taken to fix it (and re-start it)
• It takes effort to get the relationship back
We need the following general metaphors: LIFE IS A JOURNEY and LOVE IS A JOURNEY, amongst
which the former activates the latter. These metaphors have two different target domains and the same
source domain.
LIFE IS A JOURNEY LOVE IS A JOURNEY
There are also the following primary metaphors underlying the general metaphors:
• ACTION IS MOTION
• PURPOSES ARE DESTINATIONS
These primary metaphors have entailed metaphors:
• DIFFICULTIES ARE IMPEDIMENTS TO REACHING A DESTINATION
And a composite metaphor:
• PURPOSEFUL ACTION IS MOTION TOWARD A DESTINATION
The primary metaphors undderlying LOVE IS A JOURNEY specifically are:
• A RELATIONSHIP IS A BOUNDED REGION IN SPACE (CONTAINER)
• INTIMACY IS CLOSENESS
The target domain frame of LIFE IS A JOURNEY
is as follows:
Life frame: a life is the sequence of actions
performed over a lifetime, with a cultural norm that
people are expected to have purposes in life.
Entailed metaphors of LIFE IS A JOURNEY,
given all primary metaphors as well as the
general metaphor:
• A LIFE IS A SEQUENCE OF MOTIONS
• THE COURSE OF A LIFE IS THE PATH
TRACED BY A LIFE’S SEQUENCE OF
MOTIONS
• A PURPOSEFUL LIFE IS A SEQUENCE
OF MOTIONS TOWARD
DESTINATIONS
• DIFFICULTIES IN A PURPOSEFUL
LIFE ARE IMPEDIMENTS IN
REACHING LIFE DESTINATIONS
The target domain frame of LOVE IS A
JOURNEY is as follows:
Love frame: lovers in a long-term relationship are
expected to have compatible purposes in life (this is
why the Love frame evokes the Life frame).
Entailed metaphors of LOVE IS A JOURNEY,
given all primary metaphors as well as the
general metaphor:
• PROCEEDING IN A LONG-TERM
LOVE RELATIONSHIP IS MOVING
FORWARD IN A TWO-PERSON
VEHICLE
• COMPATIBLE PURPOSES ARE
COMMON DESTINATIONS
• DIFFICULTIES IN A LONG-TERM
RELATIONSHIP ARE IMPEDIMENTS
TO REACHING COMPATIBLE
DESTINATIONS
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The common source domain frame of LIFE IS A JOURNEY and LOVE IS A JOURNEY is as follows:
Journey frame:
• A journey is a long sequence of motions to one or more destinations
• A journey is usually done in a vehicle
• There are one or more travelers
• There is a goal or destination
• A vehicle is a means for reaching the destination
• In a two-person vehicle, the travellers are close (and when two travelers are in the vehicle, they
both go in the same direction and cannot go in different directions)
• A vehicle is solid and can last a long time
• A two-person vehicle is a means for reaching common destinations
Your task is to create a similar cascade using primary, general and entailed metaphors, given the
following sentence, with a focus on the underlined portion:
Many of us can hit invisible barriers that seem to keep us from career success. You don’t
have to accept this fate. Learn how to smash through that glass ceiling!1
To do:
• Use the table format in the example above to create a similar cascade table when
analyzing this expression. You may stick as closely as possible to the format of the above
table; just keep in mind that the metaphoric cascade you identify for your expression may
not necessarily have the same kind of structure. (For instance, it may not necessarily have
two general metaphors with the same source domain frame.)
• In your table, start with the specific metaphor, then generate general metaphors and
entailments, as many as it takes.
• Don’t neglect the metaphoric entailments (e.g., one metaphoric entailment for STATES
ARE LOCATIONS is CHANGE OF STATE IS CHANGE OF LOCATION).
• The section on mappings is very important. In terms of a list of mappings, only list the
mappings in the specific metaphor, as you see in the table above.
o Then, provide a role cascade in the source domain. For example:
” Boat — vehicle — object (a container)
” Travelers by boat — travelers (in general) — movers along a path
” Path of travel of boat — path of travel of a vehicle — path of motion
” Common destination for two travelers by boat — commmon destination
for two travelers (in general) — common goal on a path of motion
” (etc. for the other source domain roles)
• You’ll note that the source and target domains of the general metaphors are themselves
outlined in detail in the table above (Love, Life, and Journey). Do the same for the frames
in your general metaphor(s).
1 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newCDV_71.htm
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Question 2
(2 pages)
Choose one of the proverbs below and provide an analysis that includes the following points. Please see
the example analysis below to get an idea of how to address these points. (Formatting note: the example
below outlines the information in bullet point format and as such paragraphs are single-spaced. Do NOT
do this. Instead, write your explanations in double-spaced prose. However, the table and list of metaphors
do not need to be double-spaced.)
If you are discussing the final in a group, for Question 2 each person in the discussion group must pick a
different proverb to analyze on their particular final.
The points to cover are:
• A paraphrase of the meaning of the proverb (in the example below, it’s the last item, in bold), and
relating the proverb to common circumstances in which it would be used, in order to explain why
this would even be a proverb.
• All the metaphors and metonymies responsible for the overall meaning of the proverb, with:
o A description of the frames and frame-based knowledge involved, as below
o Carefully mapping out of the mappings and inferences for the specific metaphor (as you
see in the table in the example below)
o You don’t have to organize the cascade as you did in Question 1 to show how the
metaphors relate to each other; just proceed as below by discussing in prose the
metaphoric logic, drawing from all the metaphors you have identified, and discussing
which metaphor is responsible for which aspect of the overall meaning.
Proverbs from which you should choose ONE:
• A house divided against itself cannot stand.
• You made your bed, now you can lie in it.
• Barking dogs seldom bite.
• Don’t bite the hand that feeds you.
• You can take a horse to water, but you can’t make him drink.
• Too many cooks spoil the broth.
• You catch more flies with honey than with vinegar.
Example proverb and analysis:
People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
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Question 3
3a. (Half a page)
Give an example of metaphorical embodiment
and embodied metaphors different from
objectivism? Your discussion should
metaphorical embodiment, and how the latter differs from the former.
3b. (Half a page)
What are some of the metaphors that are taken literally by philosophers?
assumptions of objectivist philosophy reached given that these metaphors are taken literally?
Question 4
(1 page)
What is direct causation? What is systemic causation
causation? Discuss the differences using
involving the logic of causation. Also, include a mention of causation
your chosen domain. (Re-visiting Chapter 11 of PITF is recomme
Domain 1: climate change
Domain 2: terrorism
Domain 3: evolution
Discuss in terms of folk and popular perceptions of causation i
specific scientific theories. Basically, see how causation in climate
to be discussed in the news and in popular media in general, as well as how, in your experience people
around you just tend to talk about these things.
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embodiment. How is a theory of meaning based on embodied
the traditional philosophy of meaning with its roots in
include a general characterization of objectivism and of
, How are the fundamental
causation? How is systemic causation different from direct
one of the following domains commonly implicating reasoning
metaphors in your dis
recommended).
in these domains, rather than
change, terrorism, or evolution tends
—-end of exam—
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