What do the competency, behavioral, and transformational leadership theories have in common?
All of them have been rejected by OB scholars as poor representations of effective leadership.
All of them generally assume a ‘one best way’ (universal) approach to leadership.
All of them explicitly consider the relevance of emotional intelligence in leadership.
All of them explicitly describe leadership in terms of the leader’s power over subordinates.
All of them are contingency approaches to leadership.
Organizations operating in diverse environments should:
adopt a functional structure.
centralize so that more decisions are made by top management alone.
develop a set of formal rules and regulations specifically addressing what employees should do about that diversity.