Dr. Chan developed a medication that she hypothesizes will reduce the obsessive thinking in individuals with paraphilias. A colleague suggests they also examine the effect of the medication on sexual arousal. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She obtains permission to recruit subjects from databanks of known sex offenders. Thirty-five people agree who met diagnostic criteria for a paraphila agreed to participate and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After six-months, the subjects return to the clinic. Only thirty return and she cannot locate the other two. She finds twenty other subjects through counselor referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive the medication. Dr. Chan tests both groups of participants on physiological measures of sexual arousal in the presences of paraphilic stimuli. She also has participants record their thoughts into a digital recorder and journal throughout the day when having thoughts of a sexual nature involving paraphilic stimuli. She finds that the subjects who took the medication showed less sexual arousal in response to the stimuli than the control group. The researcher and her colleagues conclude that the medication is effective for the obsessive thinking and arousal in individuals with paraphilias.

Dr. Chan and her colleagues, encouraged by the original findings, decided to conduct the experiment using a double-blind procedure. Which of the following would be consistent with using a double-blind procedure? (Points : 1)

 Avoid telling the participants that the medication is supposed to stop obsessive thinking.
 Add a control group of individuals who do not have paraphilias and give them the medication.
 Add a group of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for paraphilias who are given a placebo and ensure that neither the participants nor those administering the post-tests and evaluating the audio and written journals know who is in the mdication group and who is in the control group.
 Use the same design as in the original study but tell the subjects that the medicatio nis supposed to help a symptom other than obsessive thinking, such as mood.

===============

A researcher decided to examine the development of second language learning using shallow-processing and deep-processing tasks. He tested 6-year-olds and 15-year-olds from the local schools. Half of the students in each age group were in the shallow-processing condition; the other half were in the deep-processing condition. The following table shows the percentage of second language words correctly used by the participatns in each of the four conditions.

An analysis reveals a statistically significant (reliable) interaction between the participants’ age and the processing condition. Which of the following statements would be the best interpretation of that interaction? (Points : 1)

 Depth of processing has little or no benefit for the 6-year-olds, but substantial benefits for the 15-year-olds.
 A deep level of processing is equally effective for both age groups.
 As children grow older, they are better able to understand how to learning new vocabulary in a second language can be improved with a deep level of processing.
 Deep processign is more effective for individuals in the concrete operations stage than for individuals in the formal operations stage.

================

The results of carefully controlled observations of Clever Hans and his ability to solve math problems showed that ___________. (Points : 1)

       he could not do math
 he could add, but he could not multiply
 he was excellent in math
 he was cued by the owner looking up or down

Dr. Kamau is conducting a meta-analysis of research on cultural differences in musical preferences. In addition to analyzing all journal articles from the last 10 years, she also analyzes all theses, dissertations, and conference presentations she can locate and obtain data from. Dr. Kamau is attempting to minimize which type of bias? (Points : 1)

       Cultural bias
 Experimenter bias
 Gender bias
 Publication bias

Dr. Matthews is interested in investigating gender bias among mothers. One hundred mothers were asked to rate an article in terms of its persuasiveness. The article was on the topic of education. The subjects were assigned to one of two groups. One group of 50 mothers read the article and were told that it was authored by a woman named Stephanie James. The other group of 50 mothers read the same article but were told it was authored by a man named James Stevens. After reading the article, each subject rated the article on a 7-point scale as follows.

not at all persuasive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very persuasive

The average rating scores were compared for the two groups; that is, the group with a female author versus the group with a male author. Results indicated that the average rating was much higher when the article was attributed to a male author than to a female author.

Indicate whether the independent and dependent variables are quantitative or qualitative. (Points : 1)

 Independent variable: quantitative; dependent variable: qualitative
 Independent variable: quantitative; dependent variable: quantitative
 Independent variable: qualitative; dependent variable: quantitative
 Independent variable: qualitative; dependent variable: qualitative

=

An experiment is performed to see if listening to different types of music while studying differentially impacts information recall. Four groups study the same material. Group 1 listens to European classical music. Group 2 listens to rock. Group 3 listens to jazz. Group 4 listens to pop. Group 5 listens to country. Group 6 studies without listening to music. The independent variable is ___________. (Points : 1)

 studying
 group size
 type of music
 information recall

 

Question 7 of 15Research on extrasensory perception (ESP) has been controversial to say the least. Dr. Psychic posits that ESP is a type of intellectual skill that must be nurtured and developed like mathematical or linguistic abilities. Furthermore, he believes that hypnosis may be helpful in fostering ESP development. One standard ESP task involves the use of special cards that have only five denominations.

The experiment that Dr. Psychic used was to take a deck of 200 cards and have a “sender” shuffle them. The sender looks at the first card, thinks of the image on the card, and then the subject guessed what the card is. This process is repeated throughout the entire deck. ESP is measured by the number of correct guesses on the part of the subject (the receiver).

Dr. Psychic used this task with 100 military volunteers. Two conditions were used. In the first condition, 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) were hypnotized and given the task above. In the second condition, and additional 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) completed the task without being hypnotized. The average number of correct predictions was computed for the two groups. These averages turned out not to be statistically significantly different from each other and it was concluded that hypnosis does not affect ESP.

What variables are explicitly held constant by the experimenter? (Points : 1)

 Images on the cards, use of hypnosis on both groups, time of day subjects were tested
 Gender distribution of the two groups, same deck of cards used by both groups, use of hypnosis on both groups
 Gender distribution of the two groups, use of only military subjects, same deck of cards used by both groups
 None of the above—nothing was held constant by the experimenter.

 

A statistical technique that combines results of a large number of studies is called a(n) _____________. (Points : 1)

 statistical linear [design, technique?]
 quasi-experimental design
 meta-analysis
 experimental correlation

 

Dr. Chan developed a medication that she hypothesizes will reduce the obsessive thinking in individuals with paraphilias. A colleague suggests they also examine the effect of the medication on sexual arousal. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She obtains permission to recruit subjects from databanks of known sex offenders. Thirty-five people agree who met diagnostic criteria for a paraphila agreed to participate and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After six-months, the subjects return to the clinic. Only thirty return and she cannot locate the other two. She finds twenty other subjects through counselor referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive the medication. Dr. Chan tests both groups of participants on physiological measures of sexual arousal in the presences of paraphilic stimuli. She also has participants record their thoughts into a digital recorder and journal throughout the day when having thoughts of a sexual nature involving paraphilic stimuli. She finds that the subjects who took the medication showed less sexual arousal in response to the stimuli than the control group. The researcher and her colleagues conclude that the medication is effective for the obsessive thinking and arousal in individuals with paraphilias.

Based on the scenario presented, which of the following would be necessary to turn this study into a true experiment? (Points : 1)

 Recruit a group of 27 control participants with paraphilias and compare the therapeutic efficacy of the medication in both groups.
 Measure sexual arousal several times during the 6-month period, including a measure before the medication was taken.
 Randomly assign patients with paraphilia to the medication and control groups.
e. Perform a t-test on the results and show that the medication group performed better than the control group.

 

Question 10 of 15A 75-item vocabulary test was administered to a group of residents in an assisted living facility. A second similar test of vocabulary terms was administered to this same group of residents approximately one week later. The researcher reported that the correlation between the two tests was r = .87. Which of the following statements is accurate? (Points : 1)

 The reliability of the tests is strong.
 The reliability of the tests is weak.
 The divergent validity of the tests is strong.
 The face validity of the tests is strong.

 

Dr. Matthews is interested in investigating gender bias among mothers. One hundred mothers were asked to rate an article in terms of its persuasiveness. The article was on the topic of education. The subjects were assigned to one of two groups. One group of 50 mothers read the article and were told that it was authored by a woman named Stephanie James. The other group of 50 mothers read the same article but were told it was authored by a man named James Stevens. After reading the article, each subject rated the article on a 7-point scale as follows.

not at all persuasive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very persuasive

The average rating scores were compared for the two groups; that is, the group with a female author versus the group with a male author. Results indicated that the average rating was much higher when the article was attributed to a male author than to a female author.

What variables are explicitly held constant by the experimenter? (Points : 1)

 Content of the article, the study was conducted only with mothers
 The age of the subjects, the ethnicities of the subjects
 The ratings by the subjects, the age of the subjects
 None of the above—nothing was held constant by the experimenter

 

Question 12 of 15Dr. Chan developed a medication that she hypothesizes will reduce the obsessive thinking in individuals with paraphilias. A colleague suggests they also examine the effect of the medication on sexual arousal. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She obtains permission to recruit subjects from databanks of known sex offenders. Thirty-five people, who met diagnostic criteria for a paraphila, agreed to participate and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After 6 months, the subjects return to the clinic. Only 30 return and she cannot locate the other two. She finds 20 other subjects through counselor referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive the medication. Dr. Chan tests both groups of participants on physiological measures of sexual arousal in the presences of paraphilic stimuli. She also has participants record their thoughts into a digital recorder and journal throughout the day when having thoughts of a sexual nature involving paraphilic stimuli. She finds that the subjects who took the medication showed less sexual arousal in response to the stimuli than the control group. The researcher and her colleagues conclude that the medication is effective for the obsessive thinking and arousal in individuals with paraphilias.

Based on the scenario presented, which of the following would not be a way to improve this study? (Points : 1)

 Randomly assign subjecs to the medication and control groups.
 Use participants who have only been in treatment for paraphilic behaviors.
 Give both groups a pretest so theat the researchers could assess changes in sexual arousal and obsessive thinking.
 Ensure that participants actually take the medication daily.

 

Question 13 of 15Professor Cui works to recruit an equal number of participants from each of several geographic regions to test for regional differences in language skills. Which of the following sampling procedures would be best to use if results are to be generalizable? (Points : 1)

 Simple random sampling
 Stratified sampling
 Nonrandom sampling
 Convenience sampling with quotas

 

Research on extrasensory perception (ESP) has been controversial to say the least. Dr. Psychic posits that ESP is a type of intellectual skill that must be nurtured and developed like mathematical or linguistic abilities. Furthermore, he believes that hypnosis may be helpful in fostering ESP development. One standard ESP task involves the use of special cards that have only five denominations.

The experiment that Dr. Psychic used was to take a deck of 200 cards and have a “sender” shuffle them. The sender looks at the first card, thinks of the image on the card, and then the subject guessed what the card is. This process is repeated throughout the entire deck. ESP is measured by the number of correct guesses on the part of the subject (the receiver).

Dr. Psychic used this task with 100 military volunteers. Two conditions were used. In the first condition, 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) were hypnotized and given the task above. In the second condition, and additional 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) completed the task without being hypnotized. The average number of correct predictions was computed for the two groups. These averages turned out not to be statistically significantly different from each other and it was concluded that hypnosis does not affect ESP.

What is the most likely level of measurement for the dependent variable? (Points : 1)

 Ordinal
 Nominal
 Interval
 Ratio

 

14 of

 

Question 15 of 15In an experiment to find out if taking ginseng improves memory scores, the memory scores would be ____________. (Points : 1)

 the independent variable
 a control variable
 a random variable
 the dependent variable

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Dr. Chan developed a medication that she hypothesizes will reduce the obsessive thinking in individuals with paraphilias. A colleague suggests they also examine the effect of the medication on sexual arousal. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She obtains permission to recruit subjects from databanks of known sex offenders. Thirty-five people agree who met diagnostic criteria for a paraphila agreed to participate and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After six-months, the subjects return to the clinic. Only thirty return and she cannot locate the other two. She finds twenty other subjects through counselor referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive the medication. Dr. Chan tests both groups of participants on physiological measures of sexual arousal in the presences of paraphilic stimuli. She also has participants record their thoughts into a digital recorder and journal throughout the day when having thoughts of a sexual nature involving paraphilic stimuli. She finds that the subjects who took the medication showed less sexual arousal in response to the stimuli than the control group. The researcher and her colleagues conclude that the medication is effective for the obsessive thinking and arousal in individuals with paraphilias.

Dr. Chan and her colleagues, encouraged by the original findings, decided to conduct the experiment using a double-blind procedure. Which of the following would be consistent with using a double-blind procedure? (Points : 1)

 Avoid telling the participants that the medication is supposed to stop obsessive thinking.
 Add a control group of individuals who do not have paraphilias and give them the medication.
 Add a group of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for paraphilias who are given a placebo and ensure that neither the participants nor those administering the post-tests and evaluating the audio and written journals know who is in the mdication group and who is in the control group.
 Use the same design as in the original study but tell the subjects that the medicatio nis supposed to help a symptom other than obsessive thinking, such as mood.

===============

A researcher decided to examine the development of second language learning using shallow-processing and deep-processing tasks. He tested 6-year-olds and 15-year-olds from the local schools. Half of the students in each age group were in the shallow-processing condition; the other half were in the deep-processing condition. The following table shows the percentage of second language words correctly used by the participatns in each of the four conditions.

An analysis reveals a statistically significant (reliable) interaction between the participants’ age and the processing condition. Which of the following statements would be the best interpretation of that interaction? (Points : 1)

 Depth of processing has little or no benefit for the 6-year-olds, but substantial benefits for the 15-year-olds.
 A deep level of processing is equally effective for both age groups.
 As children grow older, they are better able to understand how to learning new vocabulary in a second language can be improved with a deep level of processing.
 Deep processign is more effective for individuals in the concrete operations stage than for individuals in the formal operations stage.

================

The results of carefully controlled observations of Clever Hans and his ability to solve math problems showed that ___________. (Points : 1)

       he could not do math
 he could add, but he could not multiply
 he was excellent in math
 he was cued by the owner looking up or down

Dr. Kamau is conducting a meta-analysis of research on cultural differences in musical preferences. In addition to analyzing all journal articles from the last 10 years, she also analyzes all theses, dissertations, and conference presentations she can locate and obtain data from. Dr. Kamau is attempting to minimize which type of bias? (Points : 1)

       Cultural bias
 Experimenter bias
 Gender bias
 Publication bias

Dr. Matthews is interested in investigating gender bias among mothers. One hundred mothers were asked to rate an article in terms of its persuasiveness. The article was on the topic of education. The subjects were assigned to one of two groups. One group of 50 mothers read the article and were told that it was authored by a woman named Stephanie James. The other group of 50 mothers read the same article but were told it was authored by a man named James Stevens. After reading the article, each subject rated the article on a 7-point scale as follows.

not at all persuasive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very persuasive

The average rating scores were compared for the two groups; that is, the group with a female author versus the group with a male author. Results indicated that the average rating was much higher when the article was attributed to a male author than to a female author.

Indicate whether the independent and dependent variables are quantitative or qualitative. (Points : 1)

 Independent variable: quantitative; dependent variable: qualitative
 Independent variable: quantitative; dependent variable: quantitative
 Independent variable: qualitative; dependent variable: quantitative
 Independent variable: qualitative; dependent variable: qualitative

=

An experiment is performed to see if listening to different types of music while studying differentially impacts information recall. Four groups study the same material. Group 1 listens to European classical music. Group 2 listens to rock. Group 3 listens to jazz. Group 4 listens to pop. Group 5 listens to country. Group 6 studies without listening to music. The independent variable is ___________. (Points : 1)

 studying
 group size
 type of music
 information recall

 

Question 7 of 15Research on extrasensory perception (ESP) has been controversial to say the least. Dr. Psychic posits that ESP is a type of intellectual skill that must be nurtured and developed like mathematical or linguistic abilities. Furthermore, he believes that hypnosis may be helpful in fostering ESP development. One standard ESP task involves the use of special cards that have only five denominations.

The experiment that Dr. Psychic used was to take a deck of 200 cards and have a “sender” shuffle them. The sender looks at the first card, thinks of the image on the card, and then the subject guessed what the card is. This process is repeated throughout the entire deck. ESP is measured by the number of correct guesses on the part of the subject (the receiver).

Dr. Psychic used this task with 100 military volunteers. Two conditions were used. In the first condition, 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) were hypnotized and given the task above. In the second condition, and additional 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) completed the task without being hypnotized. The average number of correct predictions was computed for the two groups. These averages turned out not to be statistically significantly different from each other and it was concluded that hypnosis does not affect ESP.

What variables are explicitly held constant by the experimenter? (Points : 1)

 Images on the cards, use of hypnosis on both groups, time of day subjects were tested
 Gender distribution of the two groups, same deck of cards used by both groups, use of hypnosis on both groups
 Gender distribution of the two groups, use of only military subjects, same deck of cards used by both groups
 None of the above—nothing was held constant by the experimenter.

 

A statistical technique that combines results of a large number of studies is called a(n) _____________. (Points : 1)

 statistical linear [design, technique?]
 quasi-experimental design
 meta-analysis
 experimental correlation

 

Dr. Chan developed a medication that she hypothesizes will reduce the obsessive thinking in individuals with paraphilias. A colleague suggests they also examine the effect of the medication on sexual arousal. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She obtains permission to recruit subjects from databanks of known sex offenders. Thirty-five people agree who met diagnostic criteria for a paraphila agreed to participate and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After six-months, the subjects return to the clinic. Only thirty return and she cannot locate the other two. She finds twenty other subjects through counselor referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive the medication. Dr. Chan tests both groups of participants on physiological measures of sexual arousal in the presences of paraphilic stimuli. She also has participants record their thoughts into a digital recorder and journal throughout the day when having thoughts of a sexual nature involving paraphilic stimuli. She finds that the subjects who took the medication showed less sexual arousal in response to the stimuli than the control group. The researcher and her colleagues conclude that the medication is effective for the obsessive thinking and arousal in individuals with paraphilias.

Based on the scenario presented, which of the following would be necessary to turn this study into a true experiment? (Points : 1)

 Recruit a group of 27 control participants with paraphilias and compare the therapeutic efficacy of the medication in both groups.
 Measure sexual arousal several times during the 6-month period, including a measure before the medication was taken.
 Randomly assign patients with paraphilia to the medication and control groups.
e. Perform a t-test on the results and show that the medication group performed better than the control group.

 

Question 10 of 15A 75-item vocabulary test was administered to a group of residents in an assisted living facility. A second similar test of vocabulary terms was administered to this same group of residents approximately one week later. The researcher reported that the correlation between the two tests was r = .87. Which of the following statements is accurate? (Points : 1)

 The reliability of the tests is strong.
 The reliability of the tests is weak.
 The divergent validity of the tests is strong.
 The face validity of the tests is strong.

 

Dr. Matthews is interested in investigating gender bias among mothers. One hundred mothers were asked to rate an article in terms of its persuasiveness. The article was on the topic of education. The subjects were assigned to one of two groups. One group of 50 mothers read the article and were told that it was authored by a woman named Stephanie James. The other group of 50 mothers read the same article but were told it was authored by a man named James Stevens. After reading the article, each subject rated the article on a 7-point scale as follows.

not at all persuasive 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very persuasive

The average rating scores were compared for the two groups; that is, the group with a female author versus the group with a male author. Results indicated that the average rating was much higher when the article was attributed to a male author than to a female author.

What variables are explicitly held constant by the experimenter? (Points : 1)

 Content of the article, the study was conducted only with mothers
 The age of the subjects, the ethnicities of the subjects
 The ratings by the subjects, the age of the subjects
 None of the above—nothing was held constant by the experimenter

 

Question 12 of 15Dr. Chan developed a medication that she hypothesizes will reduce the obsessive thinking in individuals with paraphilias. A colleague suggests they also examine the effect of the medication on sexual arousal. She needs to demonstrate the efficacy of this medication. She obtains permission to recruit subjects from databanks of known sex offenders. Thirty-five people, who met diagnostic criteria for a paraphila, agreed to participate and she gives them a six-month supply of the medication and instructs them to take one pill each morning. After 6 months, the subjects return to the clinic. Only 30 return and she cannot locate the other two. She finds 20 other subjects through counselor referrals. They serve as the control group and do not receive the medication. Dr. Chan tests both groups of participants on physiological measures of sexual arousal in the presences of paraphilic stimuli. She also has participants record their thoughts into a digital recorder and journal throughout the day when having thoughts of a sexual nature involving paraphilic stimuli. She finds that the subjects who took the medication showed less sexual arousal in response to the stimuli than the control group. The researcher and her colleagues conclude that the medication is effective for the obsessive thinking and arousal in individuals with paraphilias.

Based on the scenario presented, which of the following would not be a way to improve this study? (Points : 1)

 Randomly assign subjecs to the medication and control groups.
 Use participants who have only been in treatment for paraphilic behaviors.
 Give both groups a pretest so theat the researchers could assess changes in sexual arousal and obsessive thinking.
 Ensure that participants actually take the medication daily.

 

Question 13 of 15Professor Cui works to recruit an equal number of participants from each of several geographic regions to test for regional differences in language skills. Which of the following sampling procedures would be best to use if results are to be generalizable? (Points : 1)

 Simple random sampling
 Stratified sampling
 Nonrandom sampling
 Convenience sampling with quotas

 

Research on extrasensory perception (ESP) has been controversial to say the least. Dr. Psychic posits that ESP is a type of intellectual skill that must be nurtured and developed like mathematical or linguistic abilities. Furthermore, he believes that hypnosis may be helpful in fostering ESP development. One standard ESP task involves the use of special cards that have only five denominations.

The experiment that Dr. Psychic used was to take a deck of 200 cards and have a “sender” shuffle them. The sender looks at the first card, thinks of the image on the card, and then the subject guessed what the card is. This process is repeated throughout the entire deck. ESP is measured by the number of correct guesses on the part of the subject (the receiver).

Dr. Psychic used this task with 100 military volunteers. Two conditions were used. In the first condition, 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) were hypnotized and given the task above. In the second condition, and additional 50 randomly assigned volunteers (25 males and 25 females) completed the task without being hypnotized. The average number of correct predictions was computed for the two groups. These averages turned out not to be statistically significantly different from each other and it was concluded that hypnosis does not affect ESP.

What is the most likely level of measurement for the dependent variable? (Points : 1)

 Ordinal
 Nominal
 Interval
 Ratio

 

14 of

 

Question 15 of 15In an experiment to find out if taking ginseng improves memory scores, the memory scores would be ____________. (Points : 1)

 the independent variable
 a control variable
 a random variable
 the dependent variable

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