METHOD: One way to analyze a reference follows. This is by no means the only method, but it is a good one because it is simple, brief, yet comprehensive.

a.���Quickly scan the reference.

(1) Read the first paragraph (this usually gives a clue to what will follow).

(2) Read all captions of illustrations (these often highlight important points).

(3) Read the last paragraph (this will often summarize or state conclusions).

b.���Read the article in detail.

(1) If you have made a photocopy (YOU SHOULD!), highlight or underline details which are important to YOU. (Because we all have different past experiences, things important to Student A are not necessarily the same things that are important to Student B).

(2) Circle terms and concepts which are unfamiliar. If they are critical to your understanding, they can be looked up later in a scientific dictionary or textbook.

c.���Look up important things circled in ?b(2)?.

d.���Briefly re-read the article.

e.���Determine the Thesis.

���������Authors always have a message. They may not always state this message in the first or last sentence, or even altogether within the reference, but by reading thoroughly, you will be able to determine what it is. Ask yourself this question, ?If the authors were allowed only one or two sentences, what would they say?? Your answer to this question is the thesis.

f. Decide what other items within the reference are most important to you.

g. ���Type a ?ARTICLE ANALYSIS? page using the format below.

������This page will condense the reference into one easily-readable page which you can keep for later and which you can use to write a report or prepare a speech if you so wish.

4. FORMAT: The ARTICLE ANALYSIS should be typed, single spaced within each entry, double-spaced between entries. Indent each line subsequent to the first line of each entry. The following sections should be included:

(A) Heading (your name, etc.)

(B) Citation

(C) Thesis

(D) Important Points (at least six).

���ARTICLE ANALYSIS EXAMPLES:

������For brevity and ease of reading, this should be on a single page.

������EXAMPLE 1:

Your Name
Course & Section
Date

First Author (Inverted Name Order) and Second Author (non-inverted). Year of Publication. Title of Article. Journal Title. Volume(Number):Pages.

THESIS: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
4. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

EXAMPLE 2 – REFERENCE ANALYSIS

Ima Student

15 Sept. 2016

Biol. 1234

Miller, Richard F. and Peter E. Wigand. 1994. Holocene changes in semiarid pinyon-juniper woodlands. BioScience. 44(7):465-474.

THESIS: Juniper woodlands depend on climate, fire frequency, plant community composition and structure, and atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels. Prehistorically, increased moisture coincided with downslope expansion of junipers. Historically, however, juniper expansion coincides with milder winters and increased carbon-dioxide. Monitoring ecosystems is necessary in order to make proper management decisions.

1. The greatest climate changes probably occurred 12,500 to 11,000 years ago when the glaciers melted.

2. More changes in forests have occurred in the past 120 years than at any other time.

3. The most dramatic forest changes are due to human activity.

4. The most remarkable changes in recent times have occurred in the pinon-juniper woodlands in the inter-mountain regions of the western United States.

5. Since human settlement, pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding into shrub communities, grasslands, aspen groves, and riparian communities.

6. Paleontology records indicate increases in juniper pollen in the western U.S. areas after approximately 1000 years ago.

METHOD: One way to analyze a reference follows. This is by no means the only method, but it is a good one because it is simple, brief, yet comprehensive.

a.���Quickly scan the reference.

(1) Read the first paragraph (this usually gives a clue to what will follow).

(2) Read all captions of illustrations (these often highlight important points).

(3) Read the last paragraph (this will often summarize or state conclusions).

b.���Read the article in detail.

(1) If you have made a photocopy (YOU SHOULD!), highlight or underline details which are important to YOU. (Because we all have different past experiences, things important to Student A are not necessarily the same things that are important to Student B).

(2) Circle terms and concepts which are unfamiliar. If they are critical to your understanding, they can be looked up later in a scientific dictionary or textbook.

c.���Look up important things circled in ?b(2)?.

d.���Briefly re-read the article.

e.���Determine the Thesis.

���������Authors always have a message. They may not always state this message in the first or last sentence, or even altogether within the reference, but by reading thoroughly, you will be able to determine what it is. Ask yourself this question, ?If the authors were allowed only one or two sentences, what would they say?? Your answer to this question is the thesis.

f. Decide what other items within the reference are most important to you.

g. ���Type a ?ARTICLE ANALYSIS? page using the format below.

������This page will condense the reference into one easily-readable page which you can keep for later and which you can use to write a report or prepare a speech if you so wish.

4. FORMAT: The ARTICLE ANALYSIS should be typed, single spaced within each entry, double-spaced between entries. Indent each line subsequent to the first line of each entry. The following sections should be included:

(A) Heading (your name, etc.)

(B) Citation

(C) Thesis

(D) Important Points (at least six).

���ARTICLE ANALYSIS EXAMPLES:

������For brevity and ease of reading, this should be on a single page.

������EXAMPLE 1:

Your Name
Course & Section
Date

First Author (Inverted Name Order) and Second Author (non-inverted). Year of Publication. Title of Article. Journal Title. Volume(Number):Pages.

THESIS: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
4. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

EXAMPLE 2 – REFERENCE ANALYSIS

Ima Student

15 Sept. 2016

Biol. 1234

Miller, Richard F. and Peter E. Wigand. 1994. Holocene changes in semiarid pinyon-juniper woodlands. BioScience. 44(7):465-474.

THESIS: Juniper woodlands depend on climate, fire frequency, plant community composition and structure, and atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels. Prehistorically, increased moisture coincided with downslope expansion of junipers. Historically, however, juniper expansion coincides with milder winters and increased carbon-dioxide. Monitoring ecosystems is necessary in order to make proper management decisions.

1. The greatest climate changes probably occurred 12,500 to 11,000 years ago when the glaciers melted.

2. More changes in forests have occurred in the past 120 years than at any other time.

3. The most dramatic forest changes are due to human activity.

4. The most remarkable changes in recent times have occurred in the pinon-juniper woodlands in the inter-mountain regions of the western United States.

5. Since human settlement, pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding into shrub communities, grasslands, aspen groves, and riparian communities.

6. Paleontology records indicate increases in juniper pollen in the western U.S. areas after approximately 1000 years ago.