Description
women?artists?as?luise?burgess?,?kiki?smith,?eva?Hesse,?Berlinde?De?Bruyckere?use?the?representation?of?the?body
and?its?abstraction?as?signifier?to?convey?meanings?and?criticize?the?patriarchy

Annotated Bibliography
Paraskos, Michael P. ?Bringing into Being: Vivifying Sculpture through Touch.? Edited by Peter Dent. In Sculpture and Touch, 197-210. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2014.
The author in this chapter explains why we are e so afraid of touch in our culture. Hence, one of the answers can be found in the Platonic origin of our understanding of aesthetics, and in the fact that Sight has always been always the most important on the all other senses.Moreover, because of our society privileged thinker above doers. He then concludes that Art should be a control balance to virtual life specifying our need and necessity of Embodiment and tactile establish to develop a sense of self -nonself.
Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Luuise Bourgeois: Intensity and Influence by Helaine Posner.? In After the Revolution: Women Who Transformed Contemporary Art, 28-53.
In this section, the author genuinely describes the artistic life and work of luuise Bourgeois. She defines Louise as the mother of feminist art cause of the themes and often subjects explored and expressed by her work. For instance, personal identity, sexuality, gender uncertainty, primal urges and emotional extremes as Including such dualities:male-female penes breast inside-outside light dark, all linked by her visceral approach to art making.
Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Spellbound by Nancy Princenthal.? In The Reckoning: Women Artists of the New Millennium, 68-77.
? The chapter starts by how expressive strength relay in the use of material reality; however, women before were associated with the opposite, but now some women artists revert this stereotype. The first of those was Louise Bourgeois, therefore contemporary feminist theorist made a connection with surrealist art. in other words, the author explains that during the 1920s some women artist joined and first define them self as a surrealist. This relevant information because surrealism was the first avant-garde that translates the language of dreams into poetry and art, or something ephemeral and internal in something material and they use femininity and introspection as a departure from rationality.
Kelly, Mary. ?Foreword by Lucy Lippard. Preface.? In Post-Partum Document, Xi-Xxiv. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999.
In this into Lucy Lippard explain the importance and the problematic of one of the most, in my opinion, powerful piece of feminist art: The Post Partum Document by Mary Kelly. This work constitutes a full script-visual documentation of a mother-child relation and all its implications. It also stands against the cultural repression of the mother-child experiences at that time,1977.She then concludes arguing The necessity for feminist art to criticized the ways in which woman see and take for granted their perception.
Krauss, Rosalind. ?Sculpture in the Expanded Field.? October 8 (1979): 30. doi:10.2307/778224.
In this iconic essay, published in 1979, the well-known critic Rosalind Krauss explains the evolution and revolution of the concept and meaning of the field of sculpture. She starts from the traditional approach to sculpture and the dwindling of it during the nineteenth century.? At first, the field of sculpture was just a commemorative representation- and it speaks about the meaning of the location in a symbolical way. Then with the advent of modernism become Self-referential and its status and meaning NOMADIC but always defined by its medium. Finally, Postmodernism sculpture is not defined by a given medium nut about the logical operations on a set of cultural terms in which any medium can be used=artist have more freedom.

Lippard, Lucy R. ?Introduction Moving Targets/Concentric Circles: Notes from the Radical Whirlwind.? In The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Essays on Feminist Art, 1-28. New York: New Press, 1995.
Lucy in this great intro explains and define the different feminist movements that since the 60 a have been around. The most important point in this chapter is how she analyze feminist art through the decade, which has she mentioned was never consider and avant-garde because isn?t tight together by style but by contents. Hence these materials as the body, the sexuality, the pleasure decider, male-female outside-inside, hard-soft, solid-vulnerable and repulsive-attractive, apparently thought the differ waves and approaches of women to art never really drastically change. Concluding with the affirmation that even though the passage of years and different art decades women artist have always had the necessary to prove and define who they are and why they are so to criticize the fact that how society sees and represents women
McFadden, David Revere., Jennifer Scanlan, and Jennifer Steifle. Edwards. ?Knitting and Lace: Radical and Subversive.? In Radical Lace & Subversive Knitting, 8-18. Woodbridge: ACC Editions, 2008.
O?Reilly, Sally. ?Chapter 5 Monstrous Bodies.? In The Body in Contemporary Art, 149-88. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2009.
According to Merleau-Ponty the importance of modern art is to give life to the word of perception by showing it to us. Hence contemporary art shows us our bond to the world as intimately relational by blurring forms and meanings, using paradox mixing different perspectives. He also states the opposite role that had classical art; that is showing us that the notion that our connection to the world is distant and disembodied.
Stiles, Kristine, and Peter Selz. ?7- Process.? In Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists? Writings, 686-99. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Kristine Stile in this chapter historically and explain a contextualizes when the process of making becomes central and an essential element in the final artwork. She defines the process of making as the voluntary decision by the artist of exposing in the final piece how art comes into being and How materials behave and procedures work. Also, Process of making become central in the late 1950s but Emerge only in the 1960s and it never had and a history neither a context before that decade. text also connects this new practice with the shifting from From minimalism to post minimal. Concluding with a clear explanation of the works of artists as Morrison, Smithson, Eva Hesse Nancy Graves, Richard Serra, Bruce Nauman, Robert Rayman, Linda Gilliam, Lynda Bengalis, Merle Alderman Ukeles ext.

?Sometimes expressive of self, sometimes utterly remote from the self, the concept of body, pain, pleasure and desire remain the vehicle of much major feminist art. There is a new surge of body related identity/sexuality imagery that is reminiscent of the mid-seventies?
Lucy Lippard

As Lucy Lippard underline in the introduction of her book the pink glass swam, the themes of body, gender and sexuality have driven and defined woman art since the late sixties, hence is necessary to state that the body has always been and always will be one of the most potent signifiers of meanings, emotions, and status in art and everyday life. It is a central subject and object in the political debate about sexuality, gender, and society. It has been used to ask questions about the duality of our human condition, making strong statements and revolutionized our perception of the self. The body is bent with social contents and it conveys that the notion of identity sexual, culture, personal- is fluid. Therefore, the body and its representation were and still are adopted, by many different women sculptors, as a potent signifier and an arena for the politics of identity.
One of the first of all these women artist was the sculptress Louise Bourgeois, Born in France in 1911 and residing in New York since 1938, she was one of the major artists of the second half of the 20th and early 21st Centuries. She is identified as the mother of feminist art because of the themes and subjects she explored and expressed in her work. For instance, personal identity, sexuality, gender uncertainty, primal urges and emotional extremes as Including such dualities: male-female, penises-breast, inside-outside, light-dark, all linked by her intuitive approach to art making. Her work more than any others show how women started to use the representation of the body or abstract body as way to respond to the culture that tries to define women as the other. For instance in one of her most ambitious works, such as The Destruction of the Father 1974, she celebrates a childhood fantasy of slaying and consuming her dictatorial father at the supper table as way to manifest her discontent and anxiety of being part of a patriarchy.
Louise Bourgeois
Another artist worth mentioning and deeply involve with the history of women art and the field of sculpture is the New York based artist Kiki Smith best known for her challenging artworks about the human condition and the natural world. she often uses the engendered body as a source of storytelling, metaphor, and philosophy to question the nature of our understanding of the body. By depicting the body from the inside out she added another dimension to the exploration of the body in art. in other words she r give us a new way to define the of the body and through its most visceral l part, great example us her piece the pee body, by doing so challenging society discomfort with body process.
Kiki Smith
Another important subject of our research is the materiality an forms and how they have been use in order to make strong statement regarding the body and women art. What privileged the use of masculine material and technic rather than more feminine or woman relate?
One answer can be found in the words of Nancy Princenthal,?An inclination to wander off topic and away from reality-has often been considered a feminine trait, sometimes dismissively. Using a trusty tactic of subversion, many young women artist have turned the characterization upside down, finding in this inclination a sources of oppressive strength? in different words women started to appropriate that materials and forms always been associate and define as masculine and use them to redefine the stereotype, by giving them new meaning. Great example is the work of Louise Bourgeois Janus Fleuri, a hanging Bronze sculpture that represents two penises linked by a central kind of formless element that reminds the feminine slit. It is in the passage from one form to another, from Masculine to feminine or vice versa, that relay its power to make the viewer questions and rethink the conception and duality of gender., which implies how the artist interest to explore and represent the duality present stimulatingly in each of us. As can be seen Louise opened a new way of using and perceiving sculpture and the use of the body in order to deconstruct social stereotypies.
Sheila Pepe
Other artist, by using materials that denote femininity, challenge the visual and conceptual tenets embodied. For example the work of in Sheila Pepe knitting has been entirely transformed from being just feminine kind of process into architectural installation and massive sculptures , Revaluing ?women?s work? and using it to totally reverse the idea and perception of it. Another example is the kiki Smith Untitled, 1993 is life size paper Mache sculpture of a human body standing with its colorful and delicate guts falling and landing on the ground. The piece totally reflects the artist intention to show her View of reality from the inside out; she depicted the body through her viscera and internal organs are leavening the viewer with the question of what why we are looking at. The delicacy of the paper mach? and color juxtaposed to the harsh subject. And the combination of the to conveys an ephemeral quality to the all piece.
Kiki Smith
Peter Selz in ? Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art? defines the process of making as the voluntary decision by the artist of exposing in the final piece, how art comes into being and how materials behave. The centrality of it can be also understood as a metaphor that emphasizes the inherent strength of vulnerability. For instance, a eccentric visual vocabulary, material based approach can be found the work of Eva Hesse, who explore in its totality the embodiment of materials and the centrality of the process of making. Finding inspiration in the human body,the process of improvisation, and qualities of nontraditional materials such as industrial felt, molten lead, wax, and rubber, she and her work pushed our perception and understand of a work of art. Eva Hesse
Moreover Eva Hesse body of work can be described as haptic, in other words highly related to the sense of touch, quality that, as Michael Paraskos states in his essay ?Bringing into Being: Vivifying Sculpture through Touch? , develop a sense of self. A perfect example is her untitled piece present in the permanent collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. It consists in a series of tangled ropes cover by a brownish latex surface and hanged in a corner of the room. Its dense twisted segments and arching loops convey fragility and temporariness and the latex express some kind of visceral feelings connected to images of internal organs. It doesn?t have any humor instead express an endless pathos and drama, which make us question about the own fragility and temporariness as human being. In addition what is really compelling and unexpected its the fact that the materiality of this piece almost invite the viewer to touch it, as if in order to really understand and perceive in its entirely wholeness the contact is fundamental. Questioning how and why the feeling of identity arise from the feeling of contact with the body, therefore bringing us back to our primordial instinct or how we developed ourselves by using the touch, then bringing us back to the present where touch is a problem and in the art world is almost prohibited. but isn?t Sculpture a manifestation of touch or tactile human senses? And because of that, doesn?t the work of Eva Hesse work question the role of sculpture? Berlinde De Bruyckere
Belgian artist Berlinde De Bruyckere has been developing sculpture that reveals the human body and human life in all its fragility. They often evokes feeling of tenderness and repulsion, love and consolation but also horror and violence. They all have a Flemish Renaissance pathos, and as the previous artist, they scream us the Duality of the human condition. For example I?nside Me III? is a mix of flesh Colored branches, which remind us of intestines, displayed in the middle of white pillows and slung between a frame based on a drying rack for herbs, which seams to protect them. Here as the work of Kiki Smith shows us the body inside out in all its frailty and vulnerability. the tender-Visceral depiction of human body here again make us reflect and think deeply of our human condition.
In occlusion The body, its abstract representation, the embodiment of material, the centrality od the making process and the idea od the touch were and are central qualities in the dialoged concert women artist and their rolo. Since the 60 s till now different female sculptures have used to representation od the body to ask questions about the duality of our human condition, making strong statements and revolutionized our perception of the self by portraying and modifying our very idea of a body and the meaning of it.

Bibliography
Paraskos, Michael P. ?Bringing into Being: Vivifying Sculpture through Touch.? Edited by Peter Dent. In Sculpture and Touch, 197-210. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2014.

Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Luuise Bourgeois: Intensity and Influence by Helaine Posner.? In After the Revolution: Women Who Transformed Contemporary Art, 28-53.
.
Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Spellbound by Nancy Princenthal.? In The Reckoning: Women Artists of the New Millennium, 68-77.

Krauss, Rosalind. ?Sculpture in the Expanded Field.? October 8 (1979): 30. doi:10.2307/778224.

Leighninger, Robert D., Thomas B. Hess, and Elizabeth C. Baker. ?Art and Sexual Politics: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?? Contemporary Sociology 6, no. 3 (1977): 303. doi:10.2307/2064782.

Lippard, Lucy R. ?Introduction Moving Targets/Concentric Circles: Notes from the Radical Whirlwind.? In The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Essays on Feminist Art, 1-28. New York: New Press, 1995.
McFadden, David Revere., Jennifer Scanlan, and Jennifer Steifle. Edwards.

?Knitting and Lace: Radical and Subversive.? In Radical Lace & Subversive Knitting, 8-18. Woodbridge: ACC Editions, 2008.
.
O?Reilly, Sally. ?Chapter 5 Monstrous Bodies.? In The Body in Contemporary Art, 149-88. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2009.

Stiles, Kristine, and Peter Selz. ?7- Process.? In Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists? Writings, 686-99. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

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Description
women?artists?as?luise?burgess?,?kiki?smith,?eva?Hesse,?Berlinde?De?Bruyckere?use?the?representation?of?the?body
and?its?abstraction?as?signifier?to?convey?meanings?and?criticize?the?patriarchy

Annotated Bibliography
Paraskos, Michael P. ?Bringing into Being: Vivifying Sculpture through Touch.? Edited by Peter Dent. In Sculpture and Touch, 197-210. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2014.
The author in this chapter explains why we are e so afraid of touch in our culture. Hence, one of the answers can be found in the Platonic origin of our understanding of aesthetics, and in the fact that Sight has always been always the most important on the all other senses.Moreover, because of our society privileged thinker above doers. He then concludes that Art should be a control balance to virtual life specifying our need and necessity of Embodiment and tactile establish to develop a sense of self -nonself.
Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Luuise Bourgeois: Intensity and Influence by Helaine Posner.? In After the Revolution: Women Who Transformed Contemporary Art, 28-53.
In this section, the author genuinely describes the artistic life and work of luuise Bourgeois. She defines Louise as the mother of feminist art cause of the themes and often subjects explored and expressed by her work. For instance, personal identity, sexuality, gender uncertainty, primal urges and emotional extremes as Including such dualities:male-female penes breast inside-outside light dark, all linked by her visceral approach to art making.
Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Spellbound by Nancy Princenthal.? In The Reckoning: Women Artists of the New Millennium, 68-77.
? The chapter starts by how expressive strength relay in the use of material reality; however, women before were associated with the opposite, but now some women artists revert this stereotype. The first of those was Louise Bourgeois, therefore contemporary feminist theorist made a connection with surrealist art. in other words, the author explains that during the 1920s some women artist joined and first define them self as a surrealist. This relevant information because surrealism was the first avant-garde that translates the language of dreams into poetry and art, or something ephemeral and internal in something material and they use femininity and introspection as a departure from rationality.
Kelly, Mary. ?Foreword by Lucy Lippard. Preface.? In Post-Partum Document, Xi-Xxiv. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999.
In this into Lucy Lippard explain the importance and the problematic of one of the most, in my opinion, powerful piece of feminist art: The Post Partum Document by Mary Kelly. This work constitutes a full script-visual documentation of a mother-child relation and all its implications. It also stands against the cultural repression of the mother-child experiences at that time,1977.She then concludes arguing The necessity for feminist art to criticized the ways in which woman see and take for granted their perception.
Krauss, Rosalind. ?Sculpture in the Expanded Field.? October 8 (1979): 30. doi:10.2307/778224.
In this iconic essay, published in 1979, the well-known critic Rosalind Krauss explains the evolution and revolution of the concept and meaning of the field of sculpture. She starts from the traditional approach to sculpture and the dwindling of it during the nineteenth century.? At first, the field of sculpture was just a commemorative representation- and it speaks about the meaning of the location in a symbolical way. Then with the advent of modernism become Self-referential and its status and meaning NOMADIC but always defined by its medium. Finally, Postmodernism sculpture is not defined by a given medium nut about the logical operations on a set of cultural terms in which any medium can be used=artist have more freedom.

Lippard, Lucy R. ?Introduction Moving Targets/Concentric Circles: Notes from the Radical Whirlwind.? In The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Essays on Feminist Art, 1-28. New York: New Press, 1995.
Lucy in this great intro explains and define the different feminist movements that since the 60 a have been around. The most important point in this chapter is how she analyze feminist art through the decade, which has she mentioned was never consider and avant-garde because isn?t tight together by style but by contents. Hence these materials as the body, the sexuality, the pleasure decider, male-female outside-inside, hard-soft, solid-vulnerable and repulsive-attractive, apparently thought the differ waves and approaches of women to art never really drastically change. Concluding with the affirmation that even though the passage of years and different art decades women artist have always had the necessary to prove and define who they are and why they are so to criticize the fact that how society sees and represents women
McFadden, David Revere., Jennifer Scanlan, and Jennifer Steifle. Edwards. ?Knitting and Lace: Radical and Subversive.? In Radical Lace & Subversive Knitting, 8-18. Woodbridge: ACC Editions, 2008.
O?Reilly, Sally. ?Chapter 5 Monstrous Bodies.? In The Body in Contemporary Art, 149-88. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2009.
According to Merleau-Ponty the importance of modern art is to give life to the word of perception by showing it to us. Hence contemporary art shows us our bond to the world as intimately relational by blurring forms and meanings, using paradox mixing different perspectives. He also states the opposite role that had classical art; that is showing us that the notion that our connection to the world is distant and disembodied.
Stiles, Kristine, and Peter Selz. ?7- Process.? In Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists? Writings, 686-99. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Kristine Stile in this chapter historically and explain a contextualizes when the process of making becomes central and an essential element in the final artwork. She defines the process of making as the voluntary decision by the artist of exposing in the final piece how art comes into being and How materials behave and procedures work. Also, Process of making become central in the late 1950s but Emerge only in the 1960s and it never had and a history neither a context before that decade. text also connects this new practice with the shifting from From minimalism to post minimal. Concluding with a clear explanation of the works of artists as Morrison, Smithson, Eva Hesse Nancy Graves, Richard Serra, Bruce Nauman, Robert Rayman, Linda Gilliam, Lynda Bengalis, Merle Alderman Ukeles ext.

?Sometimes expressive of self, sometimes utterly remote from the self, the concept of body, pain, pleasure and desire remain the vehicle of much major feminist art. There is a new surge of body related identity/sexuality imagery that is reminiscent of the mid-seventies?
Lucy Lippard

As Lucy Lippard underline in the introduction of her book the pink glass swam, the themes of body, gender and sexuality have driven and defined woman art since the late sixties, hence is necessary to state that the body has always been and always will be one of the most potent signifiers of meanings, emotions, and status in art and everyday life. It is a central subject and object in the political debate about sexuality, gender, and society. It has been used to ask questions about the duality of our human condition, making strong statements and revolutionized our perception of the self. The body is bent with social contents and it conveys that the notion of identity sexual, culture, personal- is fluid. Therefore, the body and its representation were and still are adopted, by many different women sculptors, as a potent signifier and an arena for the politics of identity.
One of the first of all these women artist was the sculptress Louise Bourgeois, Born in France in 1911 and residing in New York since 1938, she was one of the major artists of the second half of the 20th and early 21st Centuries. She is identified as the mother of feminist art because of the themes and subjects she explored and expressed in her work. For instance, personal identity, sexuality, gender uncertainty, primal urges and emotional extremes as Including such dualities: male-female, penises-breast, inside-outside, light-dark, all linked by her intuitive approach to art making. Her work more than any others show how women started to use the representation of the body or abstract body as way to respond to the culture that tries to define women as the other. For instance in one of her most ambitious works, such as The Destruction of the Father 1974, she celebrates a childhood fantasy of slaying and consuming her dictatorial father at the supper table as way to manifest her discontent and anxiety of being part of a patriarchy.
Louise Bourgeois
Another artist worth mentioning and deeply involve with the history of women art and the field of sculpture is the New York based artist Kiki Smith best known for her challenging artworks about the human condition and the natural world. she often uses the engendered body as a source of storytelling, metaphor, and philosophy to question the nature of our understanding of the body. By depicting the body from the inside out she added another dimension to the exploration of the body in art. in other words she r give us a new way to define the of the body and through its most visceral l part, great example us her piece the pee body, by doing so challenging society discomfort with body process.
Kiki Smith
Another important subject of our research is the materiality an forms and how they have been use in order to make strong statement regarding the body and women art. What privileged the use of masculine material and technic rather than more feminine or woman relate?
One answer can be found in the words of Nancy Princenthal,?An inclination to wander off topic and away from reality-has often been considered a feminine trait, sometimes dismissively. Using a trusty tactic of subversion, many young women artist have turned the characterization upside down, finding in this inclination a sources of oppressive strength? in different words women started to appropriate that materials and forms always been associate and define as masculine and use them to redefine the stereotype, by giving them new meaning. Great example is the work of Louise Bourgeois Janus Fleuri, a hanging Bronze sculpture that represents two penises linked by a central kind of formless element that reminds the feminine slit. It is in the passage from one form to another, from Masculine to feminine or vice versa, that relay its power to make the viewer questions and rethink the conception and duality of gender., which implies how the artist interest to explore and represent the duality present stimulatingly in each of us. As can be seen Louise opened a new way of using and perceiving sculpture and the use of the body in order to deconstruct social stereotypies.
Sheila Pepe
Other artist, by using materials that denote femininity, challenge the visual and conceptual tenets embodied. For example the work of in Sheila Pepe knitting has been entirely transformed from being just feminine kind of process into architectural installation and massive sculptures , Revaluing ?women?s work? and using it to totally reverse the idea and perception of it. Another example is the kiki Smith Untitled, 1993 is life size paper Mache sculpture of a human body standing with its colorful and delicate guts falling and landing on the ground. The piece totally reflects the artist intention to show her View of reality from the inside out; she depicted the body through her viscera and internal organs are leavening the viewer with the question of what why we are looking at. The delicacy of the paper mach? and color juxtaposed to the harsh subject. And the combination of the to conveys an ephemeral quality to the all piece.
Kiki Smith
Peter Selz in ? Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art? defines the process of making as the voluntary decision by the artist of exposing in the final piece, how art comes into being and how materials behave. The centrality of it can be also understood as a metaphor that emphasizes the inherent strength of vulnerability. For instance, a eccentric visual vocabulary, material based approach can be found the work of Eva Hesse, who explore in its totality the embodiment of materials and the centrality of the process of making. Finding inspiration in the human body,the process of improvisation, and qualities of nontraditional materials such as industrial felt, molten lead, wax, and rubber, she and her work pushed our perception and understand of a work of art. Eva Hesse
Moreover Eva Hesse body of work can be described as haptic, in other words highly related to the sense of touch, quality that, as Michael Paraskos states in his essay ?Bringing into Being: Vivifying Sculpture through Touch? , develop a sense of self. A perfect example is her untitled piece present in the permanent collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. It consists in a series of tangled ropes cover by a brownish latex surface and hanged in a corner of the room. Its dense twisted segments and arching loops convey fragility and temporariness and the latex express some kind of visceral feelings connected to images of internal organs. It doesn?t have any humor instead express an endless pathos and drama, which make us question about the own fragility and temporariness as human being. In addition what is really compelling and unexpected its the fact that the materiality of this piece almost invite the viewer to touch it, as if in order to really understand and perceive in its entirely wholeness the contact is fundamental. Questioning how and why the feeling of identity arise from the feeling of contact with the body, therefore bringing us back to our primordial instinct or how we developed ourselves by using the touch, then bringing us back to the present where touch is a problem and in the art world is almost prohibited. but isn?t Sculpture a manifestation of touch or tactile human senses? And because of that, doesn?t the work of Eva Hesse work question the role of sculpture? Berlinde De Bruyckere
Belgian artist Berlinde De Bruyckere has been developing sculpture that reveals the human body and human life in all its fragility. They often evokes feeling of tenderness and repulsion, love and consolation but also horror and violence. They all have a Flemish Renaissance pathos, and as the previous artist, they scream us the Duality of the human condition. For example I?nside Me III? is a mix of flesh Colored branches, which remind us of intestines, displayed in the middle of white pillows and slung between a frame based on a drying rack for herbs, which seams to protect them. Here as the work of Kiki Smith shows us the body inside out in all its frailty and vulnerability. the tender-Visceral depiction of human body here again make us reflect and think deeply of our human condition.
In occlusion The body, its abstract representation, the embodiment of material, the centrality od the making process and the idea od the touch were and are central qualities in the dialoged concert women artist and their rolo. Since the 60 s till now different female sculptures have used to representation od the body to ask questions about the duality of our human condition, making strong statements and revolutionized our perception of the self by portraying and modifying our very idea of a body and the meaning of it.

Bibliography
Paraskos, Michael P. ?Bringing into Being: Vivifying Sculpture through Touch.? Edited by Peter Dent. In Sculpture and Touch, 197-210. Farnham, England: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2014.

Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Luuise Bourgeois: Intensity and Influence by Helaine Posner.? In After the Revolution: Women Who Transformed Contemporary Art, 28-53.
.
Heartney, Eleanor, Helaine Posner, Nancy Princenthal, and Sue Scott. ?Spellbound by Nancy Princenthal.? In The Reckoning: Women Artists of the New Millennium, 68-77.

Krauss, Rosalind. ?Sculpture in the Expanded Field.? October 8 (1979): 30. doi:10.2307/778224.

Leighninger, Robert D., Thomas B. Hess, and Elizabeth C. Baker. ?Art and Sexual Politics: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?? Contemporary Sociology 6, no. 3 (1977): 303. doi:10.2307/2064782.

Lippard, Lucy R. ?Introduction Moving Targets/Concentric Circles: Notes from the Radical Whirlwind.? In The Pink Glass Swan: Selected Essays on Feminist Art, 1-28. New York: New Press, 1995.
McFadden, David Revere., Jennifer Scanlan, and Jennifer Steifle. Edwards.

?Knitting and Lace: Radical and Subversive.? In Radical Lace & Subversive Knitting, 8-18. Woodbridge: ACC Editions, 2008.
.
O?Reilly, Sally. ?Chapter 5 Monstrous Bodies.? In The Body in Contemporary Art, 149-88. New York: Thames & Hudson, 2009.

Stiles, Kristine, and Peter Selz. ?7- Process.? In Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists? Writings, 686-99. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

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Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *