Discussion 1
Review the PDF document titled “Key Terms” contained in your Reading section.
Choose two of the concepts and discuss why you feel these concepts are important and how you might employ them as a professional in the future. I attack the PDF document for discussion 1

Discussion 2
Describe a subject that you would like to know more about that is related to psychology. For example, how people can pay attention better, or what could help people make better eating choices.
Considering the different research methods described in your text, choose one that you think would be best suited for studying your topic (i.e. naturalistic observation, surveys, correlational studies, experiments, case studies). Explain your reasoning for this choice.
Discuss ethical considerations that you would have to keep in mind with your research study. Referencing the APA ethics code in your text, which of the principles mentioned would be important to keep in mind for your study?

Key Terms

This document lists and defines some of the 28 most important concepts that all psychology students and psychologists should know and understand well. Many of these concepts will appear again and again in your future classes and work in psychology. You will go deeper into many of them as you explore the world of Psychology.

CONCEPTS Definition
1. ABC Behavior therapists conduct a thorough functional assessment (or behavioral analysis) to identify the maintaining conditions by systematically gathering information about situational antecedents (A), the dimensions of the problem behavior (B), and the consequences (C) of the problem. This is known as the ABC model, and the goal of a functional assessment of a client’s behavior is to understand the ABC sequence. This model of behavior suggests that behavior (B) is influenced by some particular events that precede it, called antecedents (A), and by certain events that follow it, called consequences (C). Antecedent events cue or elicit a certain behavior. For example, with a client who has trouble going to sleep, listening to a relaxation tape may serve as a cue for sleep induction. Turning off the lights and removing the television from the bedroom may elicit sleep behaviors as well. Con- sequences are events that maintain a behavior in some way, either by increasing or decreasing it. For example, a client may be more likely to return to counseling after the counselor offers verbal praise or encouragement for having come in or for having completed some homework. A client may be less likely to return if the counselor is consistently late to sessions. In doing a behavioral assessment interview, the therapist’s task is to identify the particular antecedent and consequent events that influence, or are functionally related to, an individual’s behavior (Cormier, Nurius, & Osborn, 2013).

Corey, Gerald. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning.

2.Assessment Psychologists routinely conduct assessments to understand behavior, make decisions about people, manage risk, and develop treatment plans. Human beings have made efforts toward these goals for centuries, across civilizations and cultures. Psychology is a relatively new profession, but from its earliest days, assessment of people to make decisions about them was one of its functions.

Psychological assessment is concerned with the clinician who takes a variety of test scores, generally obtained from multiple test methods, and considers the data in the context of history, referral information, and observed behavior to understand the person being evaluated, to answer the referral questions, and then to communicate findings to the patient, his or her significant others, and referral sources. (Meyer et al., 2001, p. 143)

Learning how to administer, score, and interpret test results is a challenge in itself; and a psychologist needs to know a great deal more to conduct a psychological assessment. It is not a simple task which can include following:

? Test and measurement theory
? The specifics of administering, scoring, and interpreting a variety of tests
? Theories of personality, development, and abnormal behavior
? Details related to the purpose and context of the evaluation, such as legal issues in a forensic evaluation or special education regulations in an assessment for a school
? How to conduct an interview and mental status examination
? What to look for when observing the client?s behavior
? The legal and ethical regulations governing their work

Goldfinger, K., Pomerantz, A. M. (2014). Psychological assessment and report writing. Sage Publications, Inc.: Los Angeles.

3. Ethics Code The American Psychological Association (APA) is the large, national umbrella organization that many psychologists belong to. There are also State Psychological Associations in every state in the USA. The APA publishes the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (www.apa.org/ethics). The Ethical Code sets forth enforceable rules for the conduct of psychologists. The intent of the Ethics Code is to protect the patients, students, and others who interact with psychologists from any form of harm or exploitation. The Ethics Code applies only to psychologists’ activities that are part of their scientific, educational, or professional roles as psychologists. The Ethics Code applies to psychologists? activities conducted across a variety of contexts, such as in person, by telephone, over the internet, and other electronic transmissions. Membership in the APA commits members and student affiliates to comply with the standards of the APA Ethics
Code and to the rules and procedures used to enforce them. Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an Ethical Standard is not a defense against a charge of unethical conduct.

http://www.apa.org/ethics/

4. DSM The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. It is intended to be applicable in a wide array of contexts and used by clinicians and researchers of many different orientations (e.g., biological, psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, family/systems). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the current edition and has been designed for use across clinical settings (inpatient, outpatient, partial hospital, consultation-liaison, clinic, private practice, and primary care), with community populations. It can be used by a wide range of health and mental health professionals, including psychiatrists and other physicians, psychologists, social workers, nurses, occupational and rehabilitation therapists, and counselors. It is also a necessary tool for collecting and communicating accurate public health statistics.
The DSM consists of three major components: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptive text.
http://www.psychiatry.org/practice/dsm

5. APA Style The American Psychological Association (APA) compiles its
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). This is the authoritative manual instructing all psychology students and professionals how to write papers and articles, how to use citations and references in their work that properly give credit to their sources so they avoid plagiarism, and how to prepare tables and charts summarizing research findings. All psychology students and professionals should own a copy of this, and need to make the basics of APA Style second nature in how they write. The APA has a great online tutorial for new users of APA Style at:

http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx

6. Behavior According to the APA, behaviors are the actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment. The psychological perspective of behavior is primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli.

https://www.apa.org/research/action/glossary.aspx

7. Cognition Processes of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning; also the content of the processes, such as concepts and memories.

www.apa.org

8. Personality Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole.

Most Psychologists believe that each person?s personality develops early in life and is probably firmly established by the time the person reaches adulthood. There are many tests in the Psychology field designed to measure personality. The most famous and widely used is the MMPI ? the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Personalities can be classified into types, for which there are various labels and sometimes competing systems of classification. When someone?s personality consistently causes them a lot of distress in two or more life areas, it is possible that they have a Personality Disorder. Personality Disorders are dysfunctions in a person?s characteristic style of thinking, behaving, and feeling that negatively affect their ability to function in almost all situations.

http://apa.org/topics/personality/

9. Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-based practice is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture and preferences. It is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.” The purpose of EBPP is to promote effective psychological practice and enhance public health by applying empirically supported principles of psychological assessment, case formulation, therapeutic relationship, and intervention.

http://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/evidence-based-statement.aspx

10. Experiment An Experiment is a carefully designed and controlled study that is able to isolate an exact cause-and-effect relationship through the following steps:

? Pose a question to be researched.
? Do Background Research
? Construct a Hypothesis (an educated guess to answer the research question.
? Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
? Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
? Communicate Your Results

Every formal experiment has at least two variables. The independent variable is what the researcher arranges to allow a comparison of the participants? behavior under different conditions. In the case of the two experiments on media violence, the independent variable was the type of film (violent or nonviolent). It is called the independent variable because the researcher has independent control over it?in this example, the researcher can choose which participants are shown each film. The dependent variable is the measure of the specific behavior of interest that may (or may not) be related to the independent variable.

In the simplest formal experiments, one group is placed in the condition that is hypothesized to influence the behavior of the participants and it is called the experimental group. A second group receives none of the supposedly ?active? condition of the independent variable and is called the control group. If the behavior of the participants in the experimental group differs from the behavior of the participants in the control group, the hypothesis that differences in the independent variable cause differences in the dependent variable is supported, but under only two circumstances:

1. Formal experiments are valid only when the participants are randomly assigned to the experimental or the control group. The experimenter must follow a random procedure, such as putting the names of all participants in a hat and drawing the names of the participants in the two groups without looking.

2. Formal experiments are valid only if all alternative explanations for the findings have been ruled out through strict experimental control.

Lahey, Benjami. (2009). Psychology an introduction tenth edition. McGraw Hill, New York.

11. IQ IQ means ?Intelligence Quotient.? IQ can only be accurately
measured using standardized intelligence tests administered
1:1 by a psychologist. Internet tests that say they are IQ tests
are not valid

There are two main IQ tests ? the Stanford- Binet and the Wechsler tests. The average human IQ is 100. More than half the people in the world have IQs of 100 or less. About half the people in the world have above-average IQs. Many researchers believe that IQ is influenced by genes inherited from one?s parents, but life experiences and motivation can significantly raise or lower one?s IQ. IQ scores are good predictors of GPA, job performance, and income. However, other factors, such as motivation, people skills, and physical appearance are also good predictors of the same successes in life. IQ tests are culturally biased and therefore, when interpreting IQ for members of minority groups in the USA, it is important to be aware that the IQ score itself may not be a valid measure of the person?s true intelligence.

Researchers’ understanding of the complexities of the human brain has evolved, and so too has the notion of IQ, what it really means, and how it is most accurately captured.
?There are multiple types of intelligence,? says researcher Adam Hampshire, PhD. He is a psychologist at the Brain and Mind Institute Natural Sciences Centre in London, Ontario, Canada. ?It is time to move on to using a more comprehensive set of tests that can measure separate scores for each type of intelligence.?

http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20121218/iq-test-really-measure-intelligence

12. Learning Life is a process of continual change. From infancy to adolescence to adulthood to death, we are changing. Many factors produce those changes, but one of the most important is the process of learning. Through our experiences, we learn new information, new attitudes, new fears, and new skills. We also learn to understand new concepts, to solve problems in new ways, and even to develop a personality over a lifetime. In psychology, the term learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.

Lahey, Benjami. (2009). Psychology an introduction tenth edition. McGraw Hill, New York.

13. Memory Psychologists have developed theories of memory using the computer as a model. These information-processing theories of memory are based on the apparent similarities between the operation of the human brain and that of the computer. This is not to say that psychologists believe that brains and computers operate in exactly the same way. Clearly they do not, but enough general similarity exists to make the information-processing model useful.

In the information-processing model, information can be followed as it moves through the following operations: input, storage, and retrieval. At each point in the process, a variety of control mechanisms (such as attention, storage, and retrieval) operate. Information enters the memory system through the sensory receptors. This is like your entering a term paper into your computer by typing on the keyboard. Attention operates at this level to select information for further processing. The raw sensory information that is selected is then represented?or encoded?in a form (sound, visual image, meaning) that can be used in the next stages of memory.

Other control mechanisms might then transfer selected information into a more permanent memory storage, like saving your term paper on a computer disk. When the stored information is needed, it is retrieved from memory. Before printing out your paper, you must first locate your file on the disk and retrieve it. Unfortunately, with both computers and human memory, some information may be lost or become irretrievable.

Some information needs to be stored in memory for only brief periods of time, whereas other information must be tucked away permanently. The influential stage theory of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley, 1999) assumes that we humans have a three-stage memory that meets our need to store information for different lengths of time. We seem to have one memory store that holds information for exceedingly brief intervals (sensory memory), a second memory store that holds information for no more than 30 seconds unless it?s ?renewed? (short term memory), and a third, more permanent memory store (long term memory).

Lahey, Benjami. (2009). Psychology an introduction tenth edition. McGraw Hill, New York.
14. Neuropsychology Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-specialty of clinical psychology that specializes in the assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or disease. A clinical neuropsychologist usually holds an advanced degree in clinical psychology (Ph.D., Psy.D.), and has completed a clinical internship and specialized post-doctoral training in clinical neuropsychology. What distinguishes a clinical neuropsychologist from other clinical psychologists is knowledge of the brain, including an understanding of areas such as neuroanatomy and neurological disease. The discipline involves the application of standardized measures in the study of brain behavior relationships. They use neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive deficits, and they are involved in the management, treatment and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired patients. Neuropsychology also entails the development of models and methods for understanding normal and abnormal brain function.

http://www.anpaonline.org/what-is-neuropsychology

15. Applied Behavior
Analysis Abbreviated as ?ABA,? The field of Behavior Analysis grew out of the scientific study of principles of learning and behavior. It has two main branches: experimental and applied behavior analysis. The experimental analysis of behavior is the basic science of this field and has over many decades accumulated a substantial and well-respected body of research literature. This literature provides the scientific foundation for applied behavior analysis, which is both an applied science that develops methods of changing behavior and a profession that provides services to meet diverse behavioral needs. Briefly, professionals in applied behavior analysis engage in the specific and comprehensive use of principles of learning, including operant and respondent conditioning, in order to address behavioral needs of widely varying individuals in diverse settings.

Examples of these applications include: building the skills and achievements of children in school settings; enhancing the development, abilities, and choices of children and adults with different kinds of disabilities; and augmenting the performance and satisfaction of employees in organizations and businesses.

Applied Behavior Analysis is a well-developed discipline among the helping professions, with a mature body of scientific knowledge, established standards for evidence-based practice, distinct methods of service, recognized experience and educational requirements for practice, and identified sources of requisite education in universities.

http://www.bacb.com/index.php?page=2

16. Industrial-
Organizational
Psychology Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology is the scientific study of the workplace. Rigor and methods of psychology are applied to issues of critical relevance to business, including talent management, coaching, assessment, selection, training, organizational development, performance, and work-life balance.

http://www.siop.org/

17. Forensic Psychology Forensic Psychology is the application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system. The word “forensic” comes from the Latin word “forensis,” meaning “of the forum,” where the law courts of ancient Rome were held. Today forensic refers to the application of scientific principles and practices to the adversary process where especially knowledgeable scientists play a role.

The Practice of Forensic Psychology Includes:
? Psychological evaluation and expert testimony regarding criminal forensic issues such as trial competency, waiver of Miranda rights, criminal responsibility, death penalty mitigation, battered woman syndrome, domestic violence, drug dependence, and sexual disorders
? Testimony and evaluation regarding civil issues such as personal injury, child custody, employment discrimination, mental disability, product liability, professional malpractice, civil commitment and guardianship
? Assessment, treatment and consultation regarding individuals with a high risk for aggressive behavior in the community, in the workplace, in treatment settings and in correctional facilities
? Research, testimony and consultation on psychological issues impacting on the legal process, such as eyewitness testimony, jury selection, children’s testimony, repressed memories and pretrial publicity
? Specialized treatment service to individuals involved with the legal system
? Consultation to lawmakers about public policy issues with psychological implications
? Consultation and training to law enforcement, criminal justice and correctional systems
? Consultation and training to mental health systems and practitioners on forensic issues
? Analysis of issues related to human performance, product liability and safety
? Court-appointed monitoring of compliance with settlements in class-action suits affecting mental health or criminal justice settings
? Mediation and conflict resolution
http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp

18. School Psychology School psychologists help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. They collaborate with educators, parents, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments that strengthen connections between home, school, and the community for all students.
School psychologists are highly trained in both psychology and education, completing a minimum of a specialist-level degree program (at least 60 graduate semester hours) that includes a year-long supervised internship. This training emphasizes preparation in mental health and educational interventions, child development, learning, behavior, motivation, curriculum and instruction, assessment, consultation, collaboration, school law, and systems. School psychologists must be certified and/or licensed by the state in which they work. They also may be nationally certified by the National School Psychology Certification Board (NSPCB). The National Association of School Psychologists sets ethical and training standards for practice and service delivery.
http://www.nasponline.org/about_sp/whatis.aspx

19. Social Psychology What causes people to become murderously violent? Why do some people maintain their racial prejudices throughout their lives whereas others replace their hatreds with tolerance and respect? When do people work best as a group and when are they better off alone? If you find questions such as these intriguing, you should consider a career in personality and/or social psychology.

How do people come to be who they are? How do people think about, influence, and relate to one another? These are the broad questions that personality and social psychologists strive to answer. By exploring forces within the person (such as traits, attitudes, and goals) as well as forces within the situation (such as social norms and incentives), personality and social psychologists seek to unravel the mysteries of individual and social life in areas as wide-ranging as prejudice, romantic attraction, persuasion, friendship, helping, aggression, conformity, and group interaction. Although personality psychology has traditionally focused on aspects of the individual, and social psychology on aspects of the situation, the two perspectives are tightly interwoven in psychological explanations of human behavior.

Topics of Study

How do people come to be who they are? How do people think about, influence, and relate to one another? These are the broad questions that personality and social psychologists strive to answer. By exploring forces within the person (such as traits, attitudes, and goals) as well as forces within the situation (such as social norms and incentives), personality and social psychologists seek to unravel the mysteries of individual and social life in areas as wide-ranging as prejudice, romantic attraction, persuasion, friendship, helping, aggression, conformity, and group interaction.

http://www.spsp.org/?page=whatis&terms=what+and+is+and+a+and+social+and+psychologist

20. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the revised chapter of ?Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders? includes substantive changes to the disorders grouped there plus changes to the criteria of certain conditions.

Substance Use Disorder
Substance use disorder in DSM-5 combines the DSM-IV categories of substance abuse and substance dependence into a single disorder measured on a continuum from mild to severe. Each specific substance (other than caffeine, which cannot be diagnosed as a substance use disorder) is addressed as a separate use disorder (e.g., alcohol use disorder, stimulant use disorder, etc.), but nearly all substances are diagnosed based on the same overarching criteria. In this overarching disorder, the criteria have not only been combined, but strengthened. Whereas a diagnosis of substance abuse previously required only one symptom, mild substance use disorder in DSM-5 requires two to three symptoms from a list of 11. Drug craving will be added to the list, and problems with law enforcement will be eliminated because of cultural considerations that make the criteria difficult to apply internationally.

Addictive Disorders
The chapter also includes gambling disorder as the sole condition in a new category on behavioral addictions. DSM-IV listed pathological gambling but in a different chapter. This new term and its location in the new manual reflect research findings that gambling disorder is similar to substance-related disorders in clinical expression, brain origin, comorbidity, physiology, and treatment.

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Substance%20Use%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

21. Psychological
Disorders According to the DSM-5:

“A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress in social, occupational, or other important activities. An expectable or culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one, is not a mental disorder. Socially deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are not mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict results from a dysfunction in the individual, as described above.”

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rethinking-psychology/201307/the-new-definition-mental-disorder

22. Theories in Psychology There are numerous psychological theories that are used to explain and predict a wide variety of behaviors. What exactly is the purpose of having so many psychological theories? These theories serve a number of important purposes.
? Theories provide a framework for understanding human behavior, thought, and development. By having a broad base of understanding about the how’s and why’s of human behavior, we can better understand ourselves and others.
? Theories create a basis for future research. Researchers use theories to form hypotheses that can then be tested.
? Theories are dynamic and always changing. As new discoveries are made, theories are modified and adapted to account for new information.
http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentecourse/a/dev_purpose.htm

23. Psychotherapy According to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than a quarter of American adults experience depression, anxiety or another mental disorder in any given year. Others need help coping with a serious illness, losing weight or stopping smoking. Still others struggle to cope with relationship troubles, job loss, the death of a loved one, stress, substance abuse or other issues. And these problems can often become debilitating.
A psychologist can help individuals work through such problems. Through psychotherapy, psychologists help people of all ages live happier, healthier and more productive lives.
In psychotherapy, psychologists apply scientifically validated procedures to help people develop healthier, more effective habits. There are several approaches to psychotherapy ? including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal and other kinds of talk therapy ? that help individuals work through their problems.
Psychotherapy is a collaborative treatment based on the relationship between an individual and a psychologist. Grounded in dialogue, it provides a supportive environment that allows people to talk openly with someone who?s objective, neutral and nonjudgmental. The psychologist or counselor work together to identify and change the thought and behavior patterns that are keeping you from feeling your best.
http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/understanding-psychotherapy.aspx

24. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis, accredited to Sigmund Freud, has a double identity. It is a comprehensive theory about human nature, motivation, behavior, development and experience. And it is a method of treatment for psychological problems and difficulties in living a successful life.
As a general theory of individual human behavior and experience, psychoanalytic ideas enrich and are enriched by the study of the biological and social sciences, group behavior, history, philosophy, art, and literature. As a developmental theory, psychoanalysis contributes to child psychology, education, law, and family studies. Through its examination of the complex relationship between body and mind, psychoanalysis also furthers our understanding of the role of emotions in health as well as in medical illness.
http://www.apsa.org/About_Psychoanalysis.aspx

25. Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy

Developed by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy (CT), or Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), is a form of psychotherapy in which the therapist and the client work together as a team to identify and solve problems. Therapists use the Cognitive Model to help clients overcome their difficulties by changing their thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective in more than 1000 outcome studies for a myriad of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and substance abuse, among others, and it is currently being tested for personality disorders.
It has also been demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment to medication for serious mental disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Cognitive therapy has been extended to and studied for adolescents and children, couples, and families. Its efficacy has also been established in the treatment of certain medical disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypertension, fibromyalgia, post-myocardial infarction depression, noncardiac chest pain, cancer, diabetes, migraine, and other chronic pain disorders.
http://www.beckinstitute.org/what-is-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/About-CBT/252/26. Reality Therapy According to Reality Therapy, since unsatisfactory or non-existent connections with people we need are the source of almost all human problems, the goal of William Glasser?s Reality Therapy is to help people reconnect. To create a connection between people, the reality therapy counselor, teacher or manager will:
? Focus on the present and avoid discussing the past because all human problems are caused by unsatisfying present relationships.
? Avoid discussing symptoms and complaints as much as possible since these are the ways that counselees choose to deal with unsatisfying relationships.
? Understand the concept of total behavior, which means focus on what counselees can do directly – act and think.
? Avoid criticizing, blaming and/or complaining and help counselees to do the same.
? Remain non-judgmental and non-coercive, but encourage people to judge all they are doing by the choice theory axiom:
o Is what I am doing getting me closer to the people I need?
? If the choice of behaviors is not working, then the counselor helps clients find new behaviors that lead to a better connection.

? Teach counselees that legitimate or not, excuses stand directly in the way of their making needed connections.
? Focus on specifics. Find out as soon as possible who counselees are disconnected from and work to help them choose reconnecting behaviors.
http://www.wglasser.com/the-glasser-approach/reality- therapy27. REBT Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy or REBT is an action-oriented psychotherapy that teaches individuals to identify, challenge, and replace their self-defeating thoughts and beliefs with healthier thoughts that promote emotional well-being and goal achievement. REBT was developed in 1955 by Dr. Albert Ellis. Dr. Ellis has been considered one of the most influential psychotherapists in history. In a survey conducted in 1982 among approximately 800 American clinical and counseling psychologists, Albert Ellis was considered even more influential in the field than Sigmund Freud. Prior to his death in 2007, Psychology Today described him as the ?greatest living psychologist.?

According to REBT, it is largely our thinking about events that leads to emotional and behavioral upset. With an emphasis on the present, individuals are taught how to examine and challenge their unhelpful thinking which creates unhealthy emotions and self-defeating/self-sabotaging behaviors.

REBT is a practical approach to assist individuals in coping with and overcoming adversity as well as achieving goals. REBT places a good deal of its focus on the present. REBT addresses attitudes, unhealthy emotions (e.g., unhealthy anger, depression, anxiety, guilt, etc.) and maladaptive behaviors (e.g., procrastination, addictive behaviors, aggression, unhealthy eating, sleep disturbance, etc.) that can negatively impact life satisfaction. REBT practitioners work closely with individuals, seeking to help identify their individual set of beliefs (attitudes, expectations and personal rules) that frequently lead to emotional distress.

REBT then provides a variety of methods to help people reformulate their dysfunctional beliefs into more sensible, realistic and helpful ones by employing the powerful REBT technique called ?disputing.? Ultimately, REBT helps individuals to develop a philosophy and approach to living that can increase their effectiveness and satisfaction at work, in living successfully with others, in parenting and educational settings, in making our community and environment healthier, and in enhancing their own emotional health and personal welfare

http://albertellis.org/rebt-cbt-therapy/

28. Humanism/Client Centered
Therapy The theory of Humanism is a psychological model that emphasizes an individual’s phenomenal world and inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential. (APA.org). According to Gerald Corey, of all the pioneers who have founded a therapeutic approach, Carl Rogers stands out as one of the most influential figures in revolutionizing the direction of counseling theory and practice. Rogers has become known as a “quiet revolutionary” who both contributed to theory development and whose influence continues to shape counseling practice today (see Cain, 2010; Kirschenbaum, 2009; Rogers & Russell, 2002).
As a proponent of the humanist philosophy and credited with creating client centered therapy, Rogers believed that people are essentially trustworthy, that they have a vast potential for understanding themselves and resolving their own problems without direct intervention on the therapist’s part, and that they are capable of self-directed growth if they are involved in a specific kind of therapeutic relationship. From the beginning, Rogers emphasized the attitudes and personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the client?therapist relationship as the prime determinants of the outcome of the therapeutic process. He consistently relegated to a secondary position matters such as the therapist’s knowledge of theory and techniques. This belief in the client’s capacity for self-healing is in contrast with many theories that view the therapist’s techniques as the most powerful agents that lead to change (Bohart & Tallman, 2010). Clearly, Rogers revolutionized the field of psychotherapy by proposing a theory that centered on the client as the primary agent for constructive self-change (Bohart & Tallman, 2010; Bozarth, Zimring, & Tausch, 2002).

Corey, Gerald. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning.

Discussion 1
Review the PDF document titled “Key Terms” contained in your Reading section.
Choose two of the concepts and discuss why you feel these concepts are important and how you might employ them as a professional in the future. I attack the PDF document for discussion 1

Discussion 2
Describe a subject that you would like to know more about that is related to psychology. For example, how people can pay attention better, or what could help people make better eating choices.
Considering the different research methods described in your text, choose one that you think would be best suited for studying your topic (i.e. naturalistic observation, surveys, correlational studies, experiments, case studies). Explain your reasoning for this choice.
Discuss ethical considerations that you would have to keep in mind with your research study. Referencing the APA ethics code in your text, which of the principles mentioned would be important to keep in mind for your study?

Key Terms

This document lists and defines some of the 28 most important concepts that all psychology students and psychologists should know and understand well. Many of these concepts will appear again and again in your future classes and work in psychology. You will go deeper into many of them as you explore the world of Psychology.

CONCEPTS Definition
1. ABC Behavior therapists conduct a thorough functional assessment (or behavioral analysis) to identify the maintaining conditions by systematically gathering information about situational antecedents (A), the dimensions of the problem behavior (B), and the consequences (C) of the problem. This is known as the ABC model, and the goal of a functional assessment of a client’s behavior is to understand the ABC sequence. This model of behavior suggests that behavior (B) is influenced by some particular events that precede it, called antecedents (A), and by certain events that follow it, called consequences (C). Antecedent events cue or elicit a certain behavior. For example, with a client who has trouble going to sleep, listening to a relaxation tape may serve as a cue for sleep induction. Turning off the lights and removing the television from the bedroom may elicit sleep behaviors as well. Con- sequences are events that maintain a behavior in some way, either by increasing or decreasing it. For example, a client may be more likely to return to counseling after the counselor offers verbal praise or encouragement for having come in or for having completed some homework. A client may be less likely to return if the counselor is consistently late to sessions. In doing a behavioral assessment interview, the therapist’s task is to identify the particular antecedent and consequent events that influence, or are functionally related to, an individual’s behavior (Cormier, Nurius, & Osborn, 2013).

Corey, Gerald. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning.

2.Assessment Psychologists routinely conduct assessments to understand behavior, make decisions about people, manage risk, and develop treatment plans. Human beings have made efforts toward these goals for centuries, across civilizations and cultures. Psychology is a relatively new profession, but from its earliest days, assessment of people to make decisions about them was one of its functions.

Psychological assessment is concerned with the clinician who takes a variety of test scores, generally obtained from multiple test methods, and considers the data in the context of history, referral information, and observed behavior to understand the person being evaluated, to answer the referral questions, and then to communicate findings to the patient, his or her significant others, and referral sources. (Meyer et al., 2001, p. 143)

Learning how to administer, score, and interpret test results is a challenge in itself; and a psychologist needs to know a great deal more to conduct a psychological assessment. It is not a simple task which can include following:

? Test and measurement theory
? The specifics of administering, scoring, and interpreting a variety of tests
? Theories of personality, development, and abnormal behavior
? Details related to the purpose and context of the evaluation, such as legal issues in a forensic evaluation or special education regulations in an assessment for a school
? How to conduct an interview and mental status examination
? What to look for when observing the client?s behavior
? The legal and ethical regulations governing their work

Goldfinger, K., Pomerantz, A. M. (2014). Psychological assessment and report writing. Sage Publications, Inc.: Los Angeles.

3. Ethics Code The American Psychological Association (APA) is the large, national umbrella organization that many psychologists belong to. There are also State Psychological Associations in every state in the USA. The APA publishes the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (www.apa.org/ethics). The Ethical Code sets forth enforceable rules for the conduct of psychologists. The intent of the Ethics Code is to protect the patients, students, and others who interact with psychologists from any form of harm or exploitation. The Ethics Code applies only to psychologists’ activities that are part of their scientific, educational, or professional roles as psychologists. The Ethics Code applies to psychologists? activities conducted across a variety of contexts, such as in person, by telephone, over the internet, and other electronic transmissions. Membership in the APA commits members and student affiliates to comply with the standards of the APA Ethics
Code and to the rules and procedures used to enforce them. Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an Ethical Standard is not a defense against a charge of unethical conduct.

http://www.apa.org/ethics/

4. DSM The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. It is intended to be applicable in a wide array of contexts and used by clinicians and researchers of many different orientations (e.g., biological, psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, family/systems). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the current edition and has been designed for use across clinical settings (inpatient, outpatient, partial hospital, consultation-liaison, clinic, private practice, and primary care), with community populations. It can be used by a wide range of health and mental health professionals, including psychiatrists and other physicians, psychologists, social workers, nurses, occupational and rehabilitation therapists, and counselors. It is also a necessary tool for collecting and communicating accurate public health statistics.
The DSM consists of three major components: the diagnostic classification, the diagnostic criteria sets, and the descriptive text.
http://www.psychiatry.org/practice/dsm

5. APA Style The American Psychological Association (APA) compiles its
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). This is the authoritative manual instructing all psychology students and professionals how to write papers and articles, how to use citations and references in their work that properly give credit to their sources so they avoid plagiarism, and how to prepare tables and charts summarizing research findings. All psychology students and professionals should own a copy of this, and need to make the basics of APA Style second nature in how they write. The APA has a great online tutorial for new users of APA Style at:

http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx

6. Behavior According to the APA, behaviors are the actions by which an organism adjusts to its environment. The psychological perspective of behavior is primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli.

https://www.apa.org/research/action/glossary.aspx

7. Cognition Processes of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning; also the content of the processes, such as concepts and memories.

www.apa.org

8. Personality Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole.

Most Psychologists believe that each person?s personality develops early in life and is probably firmly established by the time the person reaches adulthood. There are many tests in the Psychology field designed to measure personality. The most famous and widely used is the MMPI ? the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Personalities can be classified into types, for which there are various labels and sometimes competing systems of classification. When someone?s personality consistently causes them a lot of distress in two or more life areas, it is possible that they have a Personality Disorder. Personality Disorders are dysfunctions in a person?s characteristic style of thinking, behaving, and feeling that negatively affect their ability to function in almost all situations.

http://apa.org/topics/personality/

9. Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-based practice is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture and preferences. It is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values.” The purpose of EBPP is to promote effective psychological practice and enhance public health by applying empirically supported principles of psychological assessment, case formulation, therapeutic relationship, and intervention.

http://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/evidence-based-statement.aspx

10. Experiment An Experiment is a carefully designed and controlled study that is able to isolate an exact cause-and-effect relationship through the following steps:

? Pose a question to be researched.
? Do Background Research
? Construct a Hypothesis (an educated guess to answer the research question.
? Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
? Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
? Communicate Your Results

Every formal experiment has at least two variables. The independent variable is what the researcher arranges to allow a comparison of the participants? behavior under different conditions. In the case of the two experiments on media violence, the independent variable was the type of film (violent or nonviolent). It is called the independent variable because the researcher has independent control over it?in this example, the researcher can choose which participants are shown each film. The dependent variable is the measure of the specific behavior of interest that may (or may not) be related to the independent variable.

In the simplest formal experiments, one group is placed in the condition that is hypothesized to influence the behavior of the participants and it is called the experimental group. A second group receives none of the supposedly ?active? condition of the independent variable and is called the control group. If the behavior of the participants in the experimental group differs from the behavior of the participants in the control group, the hypothesis that differences in the independent variable cause differences in the dependent variable is supported, but under only two circumstances:

1. Formal experiments are valid only when the participants are randomly assigned to the experimental or the control group. The experimenter must follow a random procedure, such as putting the names of all participants in a hat and drawing the names of the participants in the two groups without looking.

2. Formal experiments are valid only if all alternative explanations for the findings have been ruled out through strict experimental control.

Lahey, Benjami. (2009). Psychology an introduction tenth edition. McGraw Hill, New York.

11. IQ IQ means ?Intelligence Quotient.? IQ can only be accurately
measured using standardized intelligence tests administered
1:1 by a psychologist. Internet tests that say they are IQ tests
are not valid

There are two main IQ tests ? the Stanford- Binet and the Wechsler tests. The average human IQ is 100. More than half the people in the world have IQs of 100 or less. About half the people in the world have above-average IQs. Many researchers believe that IQ is influenced by genes inherited from one?s parents, but life experiences and motivation can significantly raise or lower one?s IQ. IQ scores are good predictors of GPA, job performance, and income. However, other factors, such as motivation, people skills, and physical appearance are also good predictors of the same successes in life. IQ tests are culturally biased and therefore, when interpreting IQ for members of minority groups in the USA, it is important to be aware that the IQ score itself may not be a valid measure of the person?s true intelligence.

Researchers’ understanding of the complexities of the human brain has evolved, and so too has the notion of IQ, what it really means, and how it is most accurately captured.
?There are multiple types of intelligence,? says researcher Adam Hampshire, PhD. He is a psychologist at the Brain and Mind Institute Natural Sciences Centre in London, Ontario, Canada. ?It is time to move on to using a more comprehensive set of tests that can measure separate scores for each type of intelligence.?

http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20121218/iq-test-really-measure-intelligence

12. Learning Life is a process of continual change. From infancy to adolescence to adulthood to death, we are changing. Many factors produce those changes, but one of the most important is the process of learning. Through our experiences, we learn new information, new attitudes, new fears, and new skills. We also learn to understand new concepts, to solve problems in new ways, and even to develop a personality over a lifetime. In psychology, the term learning refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.

Lahey, Benjami. (2009). Psychology an introduction tenth edition. McGraw Hill, New York.

13. Memory Psychologists have developed theories of memory using the computer as a model. These information-processing theories of memory are based on the apparent similarities between the operation of the human brain and that of the computer. This is not to say that psychologists believe that brains and computers operate in exactly the same way. Clearly they do not, but enough general similarity exists to make the information-processing model useful.

In the information-processing model, information can be followed as it moves through the following operations: input, storage, and retrieval. At each point in the process, a variety of control mechanisms (such as attention, storage, and retrieval) operate. Information enters the memory system through the sensory receptors. This is like your entering a term paper into your computer by typing on the keyboard. Attention operates at this level to select information for further processing. The raw sensory information that is selected is then represented?or encoded?in a form (sound, visual image, meaning) that can be used in the next stages of memory.

Other control mechanisms might then transfer selected information into a more permanent memory storage, like saving your term paper on a computer disk. When the stored information is needed, it is retrieved from memory. Before printing out your paper, you must first locate your file on the disk and retrieve it. Unfortunately, with both computers and human memory, some information may be lost or become irretrievable.

Some information needs to be stored in memory for only brief periods of time, whereas other information must be tucked away permanently. The influential stage theory of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Baddeley, 1999) assumes that we humans have a three-stage memory that meets our need to store information for different lengths of time. We seem to have one memory store that holds information for exceedingly brief intervals (sensory memory), a second memory store that holds information for no more than 30 seconds unless it?s ?renewed? (short term memory), and a third, more permanent memory store (long term memory).

Lahey, Benjami. (2009). Psychology an introduction tenth edition. McGraw Hill, New York.
14. Neuropsychology Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-specialty of clinical psychology that specializes in the assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or disease. A clinical neuropsychologist usually holds an advanced degree in clinical psychology (Ph.D., Psy.D.), and has completed a clinical internship and specialized post-doctoral training in clinical neuropsychology. What distinguishes a clinical neuropsychologist from other clinical psychologists is knowledge of the brain, including an understanding of areas such as neuroanatomy and neurological disease. The discipline involves the application of standardized measures in the study of brain behavior relationships. They use neuropsychological tests to assess cognitive deficits, and they are involved in the management, treatment and rehabilitation of cognitively impaired patients. Neuropsychology also entails the development of models and methods for understanding normal and abnormal brain function.

http://www.anpaonline.org/what-is-neuropsychology

15. Applied Behavior
Analysis Abbreviated as ?ABA,? The field of Behavior Analysis grew out of the scientific study of principles of learning and behavior. It has two main branches: experimental and applied behavior analysis. The experimental analysis of behavior is the basic science of this field and has over many decades accumulated a substantial and well-respected body of research literature. This literature provides the scientific foundation for applied behavior analysis, which is both an applied science that develops methods of changing behavior and a profession that provides services to meet diverse behavioral needs. Briefly, professionals in applied behavior analysis engage in the specific and comprehensive use of principles of learning, including operant and respondent conditioning, in order to address behavioral needs of widely varying individuals in diverse settings.

Examples of these applications include: building the skills and achievements of children in school settings; enhancing the development, abilities, and choices of children and adults with different kinds of disabilities; and augmenting the performance and satisfaction of employees in organizations and businesses.

Applied Behavior Analysis is a well-developed discipline among the helping professions, with a mature body of scientific knowledge, established standards for evidence-based practice, distinct methods of service, recognized experience and educational requirements for practice, and identified sources of requisite education in universities.

http://www.bacb.com/index.php?page=2

16. Industrial-
Organizational
Psychology Industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology is the scientific study of the workplace. Rigor and methods of psychology are applied to issues of critical relevance to business, including talent management, coaching, assessment, selection, training, organizational development, performance, and work-life balance.

http://www.siop.org/

17. Forensic Psychology Forensic Psychology is the application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system. The word “forensic” comes from the Latin word “forensis,” meaning “of the forum,” where the law courts of ancient Rome were held. Today forensic refers to the application of scientific principles and practices to the adversary process where especially knowledgeable scientists play a role.

The Practice of Forensic Psychology Includes:
? Psychological evaluation and expert testimony regarding criminal forensic issues such as trial competency, waiver of Miranda rights, criminal responsibility, death penalty mitigation, battered woman syndrome, domestic violence, drug dependence, and sexual disorders
? Testimony and evaluation regarding civil issues such as personal injury, child custody, employment discrimination, mental disability, product liability, professional malpractice, civil commitment and guardianship
? Assessment, treatment and consultation regarding individuals with a high risk for aggressive behavior in the community, in the workplace, in treatment settings and in correctional facilities
? Research, testimony and consultation on psychological issues impacting on the legal process, such as eyewitness testimony, jury selection, children’s testimony, repressed memories and pretrial publicity
? Specialized treatment service to individuals involved with the legal system
? Consultation to lawmakers about public policy issues with psychological implications
? Consultation and training to law enforcement, criminal justice and correctional systems
? Consultation and training to mental health systems and practitioners on forensic issues
? Analysis of issues related to human performance, product liability and safety
? Court-appointed monitoring of compliance with settlements in class-action suits affecting mental health or criminal justice settings
? Mediation and conflict resolution
http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp

18. School Psychology School psychologists help children and youth succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. They collaborate with educators, parents, and other professionals to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments that strengthen connections between home, school, and the community for all students.
School psychologists are highly trained in both psychology and education, completing a minimum of a specialist-level degree program (at least 60 graduate semester hours) that includes a year-long supervised internship. This training emphasizes preparation in mental health and educational interventions, child development, learning, behavior, motivation, curriculum and instruction, assessment, consultation, collaboration, school law, and systems. School psychologists must be certified and/or licensed by the state in which they work. They also may be nationally certified by the National School Psychology Certification Board (NSPCB). The National Association of School Psychologists sets ethical and training standards for practice and service delivery.
http://www.nasponline.org/about_sp/whatis.aspx

19. Social Psychology What causes people to become murderously violent? Why do some people maintain their racial prejudices throughout their lives whereas others replace their hatreds with tolerance and respect? When do people work best as a group and when are they better off alone? If you find questions such as these intriguing, you should consider a career in personality and/or social psychology.

How do people come to be who they are? How do people think about, influence, and relate to one another? These are the broad questions that personality and social psychologists strive to answer. By exploring forces within the person (such as traits, attitudes, and goals) as well as forces within the situation (such as social norms and incentives), personality and social psychologists seek to unravel the mysteries of individual and social life in areas as wide-ranging as prejudice, romantic attraction, persuasion, friendship, helping, aggression, conformity, and group interaction. Although personality psychology has traditionally focused on aspects of the individual, and social psychology on aspects of the situation, the two perspectives are tightly interwoven in psychological explanations of human behavior.

Topics of Study

How do people come to be who they are? How do people think about, influence, and relate to one another? These are the broad questions that personality and social psychologists strive to answer. By exploring forces within the person (such as traits, attitudes, and goals) as well as forces within the situation (such as social norms and incentives), personality and social psychologists seek to unravel the mysteries of individual and social life in areas as wide-ranging as prejudice, romantic attraction, persuasion, friendship, helping, aggression, conformity, and group interaction.

http://www.spsp.org/?page=whatis&terms=what+and+is+and+a+and+social+and+psychologist

20. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the revised chapter of ?Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders? includes substantive changes to the disorders grouped there plus changes to the criteria of certain conditions.

Substance Use Disorder
Substance use disorder in DSM-5 combines the DSM-IV categories of substance abuse and substance dependence into a single disorder measured on a continuum from mild to severe. Each specific substance (other than caffeine, which cannot be diagnosed as a substance use disorder) is addressed as a separate use disorder (e.g., alcohol use disorder, stimulant use disorder, etc.), but nearly all substances are diagnosed based on the same overarching criteria. In this overarching disorder, the criteria have not only been combined, but strengthened. Whereas a diagnosis of substance abuse previously required only one symptom, mild substance use disorder in DSM-5 requires two to three symptoms from a list of 11. Drug craving will be added to the list, and problems with law enforcement will be eliminated because of cultural considerations that make the criteria difficult to apply internationally.

Addictive Disorders
The chapter also includes gambling disorder as the sole condition in a new category on behavioral addictions. DSM-IV listed pathological gambling but in a different chapter. This new term and its location in the new manual reflect research findings that gambling disorder is similar to substance-related disorders in clinical expression, brain origin, comorbidity, physiology, and treatment.

http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Substance%20Use%20Disorder%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf

21. Psychological
Disorders According to the DSM-5:

“A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress in social, occupational, or other important activities. An expectable or culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one, is not a mental disorder. Socially deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are not mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict results from a dysfunction in the individual, as described above.”

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/rethinking-psychology/201307/the-new-definition-mental-disorder

22. Theories in Psychology There are numerous psychological theories that are used to explain and predict a wide variety of behaviors. What exactly is the purpose of having so many psychological theories? These theories serve a number of important purposes.
? Theories provide a framework for understanding human behavior, thought, and development. By having a broad base of understanding about the how’s and why’s of human behavior, we can better understand ourselves and others.
? Theories create a basis for future research. Researchers use theories to form hypotheses that can then be tested.
? Theories are dynamic and always changing. As new discoveries are made, theories are modified and adapted to account for new information.
http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentecourse/a/dev_purpose.htm

23. Psychotherapy According to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than a quarter of American adults experience depression, anxiety or another mental disorder in any given year. Others need help coping with a serious illness, losing weight or stopping smoking. Still others struggle to cope with relationship troubles, job loss, the death of a loved one, stress, substance abuse or other issues. And these problems can often become debilitating.
A psychologist can help individuals work through such problems. Through psychotherapy, psychologists help people of all ages live happier, healthier and more productive lives.
In psychotherapy, psychologists apply scientifically validated procedures to help people develop healthier, more effective habits. There are several approaches to psychotherapy ? including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal and other kinds of talk therapy ? that help individuals work through their problems.
Psychotherapy is a collaborative treatment based on the relationship between an individual and a psychologist. Grounded in dialogue, it provides a supportive environment that allows people to talk openly with someone who?s objective, neutral and nonjudgmental. The psychologist or counselor work together to identify and change the thought and behavior patterns that are keeping you from feeling your best.
http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/understanding-psychotherapy.aspx

24. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis, accredited to Sigmund Freud, has a double identity. It is a comprehensive theory about human nature, motivation, behavior, development and experience. And it is a method of treatment for psychological problems and difficulties in living a successful life.
As a general theory of individual human behavior and experience, psychoanalytic ideas enrich and are enriched by the study of the biological and social sciences, group behavior, history, philosophy, art, and literature. As a developmental theory, psychoanalysis contributes to child psychology, education, law, and family studies. Through its examination of the complex relationship between body and mind, psychoanalysis also furthers our understanding of the role of emotions in health as well as in medical illness.
http://www.apsa.org/About_Psychoanalysis.aspx

25. Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy

Developed by Dr. Aaron T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy (CT), or Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), is a form of psychotherapy in which the therapist and the client work together as a team to identify and solve problems. Therapists use the Cognitive Model to help clients overcome their difficulties by changing their thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective in more than 1000 outcome studies for a myriad of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and substance abuse, among others, and it is currently being tested for personality disorders.
It has also been demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment to medication for serious mental disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Cognitive therapy has been extended to and studied for adolescents and children, couples, and families. Its efficacy has also been established in the treatment of certain medical disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypertension, fibromyalgia, post-myocardial infarction depression, noncardiac chest pain, cancer, diabetes, migraine, and other chronic pain disorders.
http://www.beckinstitute.org/what-is-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/About-CBT/252/26. Reality Therapy According to Reality Therapy, since unsatisfactory or non-existent connections with people we need are the source of almost all human problems, the goal of William Glasser?s Reality Therapy is to help people reconnect. To create a connection between people, the reality therapy counselor, teacher or manager will:
? Focus on the present and avoid discussing the past because all human problems are caused by unsatisfying present relationships.
? Avoid discussing symptoms and complaints as much as possible since these are the ways that counselees choose to deal with unsatisfying relationships.
? Understand the concept of total behavior, which means focus on what counselees can do directly – act and think.
? Avoid criticizing, blaming and/or complaining and help counselees to do the same.
? Remain non-judgmental and non-coercive, but encourage people to judge all they are doing by the choice theory axiom:
o Is what I am doing getting me closer to the people I need?
? If the choice of behaviors is not working, then the counselor helps clients find new behaviors that lead to a better connection.

? Teach counselees that legitimate or not, excuses stand directly in the way of their making needed connections.
? Focus on specifics. Find out as soon as possible who counselees are disconnected from and work to help them choose reconnecting behaviors.
http://www.wglasser.com/the-glasser-approach/reality- therapy27. REBT Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy or REBT is an action-oriented psychotherapy that teaches individuals to identify, challenge, and replace their self-defeating thoughts and beliefs with healthier thoughts that promote emotional well-being and goal achievement. REBT was developed in 1955 by Dr. Albert Ellis. Dr. Ellis has been considered one of the most influential psychotherapists in history. In a survey conducted in 1982 among approximately 800 American clinical and counseling psychologists, Albert Ellis was considered even more influential in the field than Sigmund Freud. Prior to his death in 2007, Psychology Today described him as the ?greatest living psychologist.?

According to REBT, it is largely our thinking about events that leads to emotional and behavioral upset. With an emphasis on the present, individuals are taught how to examine and challenge their unhelpful thinking which creates unhealthy emotions and self-defeating/self-sabotaging behaviors.

REBT is a practical approach to assist individuals in coping with and overcoming adversity as well as achieving goals. REBT places a good deal of its focus on the present. REBT addresses attitudes, unhealthy emotions (e.g., unhealthy anger, depression, anxiety, guilt, etc.) and maladaptive behaviors (e.g., procrastination, addictive behaviors, aggression, unhealthy eating, sleep disturbance, etc.) that can negatively impact life satisfaction. REBT practitioners work closely with individuals, seeking to help identify their individual set of beliefs (attitudes, expectations and personal rules) that frequently lead to emotional distress.

REBT then provides a variety of methods to help people reformulate their dysfunctional beliefs into more sensible, realistic and helpful ones by employing the powerful REBT technique called ?disputing.? Ultimately, REBT helps individuals to develop a philosophy and approach to living that can increase their effectiveness and satisfaction at work, in living successfully with others, in parenting and educational settings, in making our community and environment healthier, and in enhancing their own emotional health and personal welfare

http://albertellis.org/rebt-cbt-therapy/

28. Humanism/Client Centered
Therapy The theory of Humanism is a psychological model that emphasizes an individual’s phenomenal world and inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential. (APA.org). According to Gerald Corey, of all the pioneers who have founded a therapeutic approach, Carl Rogers stands out as one of the most influential figures in revolutionizing the direction of counseling theory and practice. Rogers has become known as a “quiet revolutionary” who both contributed to theory development and whose influence continues to shape counseling practice today (see Cain, 2010; Kirschenbaum, 2009; Rogers & Russell, 2002).
As a proponent of the humanist philosophy and credited with creating client centered therapy, Rogers believed that people are essentially trustworthy, that they have a vast potential for understanding themselves and resolving their own problems without direct intervention on the therapist’s part, and that they are capable of self-directed growth if they are involved in a specific kind of therapeutic relationship. From the beginning, Rogers emphasized the attitudes and personal characteristics of the therapist and the quality of the client?therapist relationship as the prime determinants of the outcome of the therapeutic process. He consistently relegated to a secondary position matters such as the therapist’s knowledge of theory and techniques. This belief in the client’s capacity for self-healing is in contrast with many theories that view the therapist’s techniques as the most powerful agents that lead to change (Bohart & Tallman, 2010). Clearly, Rogers revolutionized the field of psychotherapy by proposing a theory that centered on the client as the primary agent for constructive self-change (Bohart & Tallman, 2010; Bozarth, Zimring, & Tausch, 2002).

Corey, Gerald. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy, 9th Edition. Cengage Learning.