MGT 302 Importance of Motivation Brief
As in some of the assignments in this course, you will draw upon your personal experience for this Module 2 Case assignment. For the assignment, you will consider the
topic of telecommuting and motivation. You will prepare a blog entry that discusses your own experience and applies the background material to the prospect of becoming
a telecommuter.

Case Assignment
In the background materials, you read about some very traditional theories of motivation such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. There is
sometimes a challenge in applying these theories.

Begin with some personal reflection. Consider a time at work when you felt highly motivated. Apply Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory to your
situation. Think about what motivates you personally. Can you apply Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories to yourself? For this assignment, you will discuss these ideas in
a hypothetical situationin which you are offered the opportunity to work remotely, that is, telecommute to your job.

For this Module 2 Case Assignment, you will prepare a blog entry with the title:

My company has offered me a chance to work remotely. Should I telecommute? How can I stay motivated working from home? If I decide to work from home, what can my
company do to help me stay highly motivated?

Your blog entry should discuss the following:

What motivates you?
How do Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory explain your own and other employees’ motivation?
How can employees remain highly motivated when telecommuting? What can they do to motivate themselves? What can the company do to motivate telecommuting employees?
Will you become a telecommuter? Why or why not?
Your blog entry should be the equivalent of a four- to five-page paper. Also, be sure to use in-text citations and a reference list. For administrative purposes,
please add a title page so that your assignment can be readily identified.

Assignment Expectations
Be sure to address the questions presented directly.
Stay focused on the precise assignment questions; do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials
Use reliable and credible sources as your references. If you find articles on the internet, make sure they are from a credible source.
————-

The Importance of Motivation Brief
Motivating employees can lead to increased productivity and allow an organization to achieve
higher levels of output. Learning Objective Identify the importance of generating high levels of motivation in employees within an
organizational behavior framework Key Points Motivation is generally what energizes, maintains, and controls behavior. The role of motivation in the workplace is
straightforward theoretically but is difficult to
actually measure. Salary is often enough motivation to keep employees working for an organization, but it’s
not always enough to push them to fulfill their full potential. Motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higherquality work at a
higher level of efficiency. The opportunity cost in motivating employees is essentially zero. Key Terms o innovation
o noun
The introduction of something new; the development of an original idea. o Opportunity cost o noun
The value of investing in the next best alternative; the value forfeited by taking a
particular route. o productivity
o noun
The rate at which products and services are generated relative to a particular workforce. Full Text – 1 Minute Read
Motivation in the Workplace
Generally speaking, motivation is what energizes, maintains, and controls behavior. As such, it is
clear why it plays an important role in the workplace. But empirically measuring that role is
another matter; it is challenging to capture an individual’s drive in quantitative metrics in order to
ascertain the degree to which higher motivation is responsible for higher productivity. However,
it is widely accepted that motivated employees generate higher value and lead to more
substantial levels of achievement. The management of motivation is therefore a critical element
of success in any business; with an increase in productivity, an organization can achieve higher
levels of output.
Research has shown that motivated employees will: Always look for a "better" way to complete a task Be more quality-oriented Work with higher productivity
and efficiency In summary, motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higherquality work more efficiently. There is no downside—i.e.,
the opportunity cost of motivating
employees is essentially zero, assuming it does not require additional capital to coach managers
to act as effective motivators. Internal and External Motivation
Salary is often enough to keep employees working for an organization, but it’s not always
necessarily enough to push them to fulfill their full potential. Herzberg’s theory emphasizes that
while salary is enough to avoid dissatisfaction, it is not necessarily enough to propel employees to increase their productivity and achievement. In fact, the output
of employees whose
motivation comes solely from salary and benefits tends to decline over time. To increase
employees’ efficiency and work quality, managers must turn to understanding and responding to
individuals’ internal and external motivations. External motives include work environment (e.g.,
cramped cubicle vs. airy, open office); internal motivations include thoughts and emotions (e.g.,
boredom with performing the same task over and over vs. excitement at being given a wide
variety of project types). Internal and external motives
There are four sources of motivation. The three internal motives are needs, cognitions, and
emotions. The fourth source consists of external motives. Perspectives on Motivation Brief Motivation in the workplace is primarily concerned with improving employees’
focus through
the use of incentives. Learning Objective Compare and contrast the organizational behavior theories regarding analyzing and
improving motivation in the workplace Key Points Generally, motivation in the workplace can be thought of through one of four specific
theoretical frameworks: needs-oriented, cognition-oriented, behavior-oriented, and joboriented. In needs-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through fulfilling a
particular
employee’s needs, with anything from salary to a sense of fulfillment. In cognition-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through fulfilling employees’
rational expectation that they be compensated based directly on the amount of value they
provide. In behavior-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through conditioning (reinforcement
and punishment). Conditioning is the implementation of positive incentives to promote
desirable behaviors and negative consequences to discourage undesirable behaviors. In job-oriented theories, motivation is achieved when employees feel fulfilled and
interested in their work; financial compensation is only enough to avoid dissatisfaction. Key Terms o conditioning
o noun
A technique of behavior modification, developed by B.F. Skinner, that utilizes positive
and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment to alter behavior. o incentive o noun
A reward used to motivate employees to perform better. Full Text – 4 Minute Read
From a managerial perspective, very few ideas are more important than the dynamics of
motivation. Understanding what moves employees toward efficiency and fulfillment is at the
core of any manager’s responsibilities. Motivation in the workplace is primarily concerned with
improving employees’ focus, often through pursuing positive incentives and avoiding negative
ones.
Theories of motivation are of course rooted in psychology. An individual must direct their
attention toward a task, generate the necessary effort to achieve that task, and persist in working
toward it despite potential distractions. Various theories have attempted to identify the factors
that contribute to effective employee motivation, most of which are easily divided into four
broad categories: Needs-oriented theories Cognition-oriented theories Behavior-oriented theories Job-oriented theories Needs-Oriented Theories
At its most basic, motivation can be defined as the fulfillment of various human needs. These
needs can encompass a range of human desires, from basic, tangible needs of survival to
complex, emotional needs surrounding an individual’s psychological well-being. Hierarchy of Needs
The most well-known example of a needs-oriented theory of motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs. Maslow postulated that needs should be fulfilled in a particular scaffolded order, with
food, water, and shelter in the bottom, most fundamental two tiers and intangible needs such as
fulfillment, self-esteem, and a sense of belonging in the upper three tiers. While this framework
makes a certain amount of logical sense, critics have noted that there have been minimal data
that suggest employees strive to satisfy needs in the workplace in accordance with this
hierarchical framework. But the fundamental idea behind Maslow’s model is that individuals
have various tangible and intangible desires that can be leveraged in the use of motivational
incentives. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs postulates that need must be fulfilled in a hierarchical order, from
basic needs such as food and water to more intangible needs such as self-esteem and a sense of
belonging. Need for Achievement Theory
Atkinson and McClelland proposed the Need for Achievement Theory, which highlights three
particular needs in the context of the workplace: achievement, authority, and affiliation. Atkinson
and McClelland hypothesized that every individual has a need for all three of these intangible
segments of fulfillment but that most individuals lean more toward one of the three. For
example, a salesman with a quota to fulfill would be best paired with an achievement-oriented
manager, as such a goal-oriented approach toward, for example, a specific number of sales would
be highly motivating. Cognition-Oriented Theories
Cognition-oriented theories generally revolve around expectations and deriving equitable
compensation for a given effort or outcome. There are two main cognition-oriented theories:
equity theory and expectancy theory. Equity Theory
Equity Theory is based on the basic concept of exchange. It values the culmination of employee
experience, skills, and performance against their respective compensation and advancement
opportunities. Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory is similarly derived, but it states this relationship through an equation:
Motivation = Expectation (? Instrumentality × Valence). Instrumentality simply refers to the
belief that a level of performance will result in a level of outcome; valence refers to the value of
that outcome.
Essentially, Expectation Theory and Equity Theory demonstrate the value of rewarding an
employee’s investment of time and effort with appropriate compensation. Behavior-Oriented Theories
The underlying concept of behavioral approaches to motivation is rooted in theories of
& quot;conditioning," particularly the work of psychologist B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism stipulates that an
employer should promote positive behavior and deter negative behavior, generally through a
basic rewards system. Variable compensation, as found in many sales jobs, is a prime example of
this concept. When an employee makes a sale, the employer provides a certain portion of income
to the employee that executed that sale. This positive reinforcement serves as a behavior
modifier, motivating the employee to repeat this behavior and make more sales. Job-Oriented Theories
Job-oriented theories adhere to the view that employees are motivated to complete tasks
effectively because of an innate desire to be fulfilled or to contribute and that compensation and
other forms of incentives are less important to them. Two-Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory is the most well known of the job-oriented theories,
despite the fact that it has not been supported by empirical evidence. Herzberg states that salary,
benefits, status, and other tangible benefits for employees can only reduce dissatisfaction and
that intangibles—such as autonomy, natural interest, recognition, and the responsibility of the
work itself—are the true basis of motivation. Work Engagement Theory
Other theories, such as Work Engagement Theory, similarly propose that intellectually fulfilling
and emotionally immersive work is the foundation of a motivated workforce.
Clearly, our understanding of workplace motivation could benefit from further research and
empirical analysis. But the variety of theories also highlights the fact that people can be
motivated by different things in different circumstances. Effective organizational management
requires an understanding of these theories as well as of their possible limitations. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Brief
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs helps managers understand employees’ needs in order to further
employees’ motivation. Learning Objective Diagram Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in the context of organizational motivation and
employee behaviors Key Points Maslow is best known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the
theory explains the different levels and importance of human psychological and physical
needs. It can be used by business managers to better understand employee motivation. The general needs in Maslow’s hierarchy include physiological needs (food and
clothing),
safety needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior
due to it’s
exploration of worker motivation, enabling better managerial practices and higher job
satisfaction. Managers must be perceptive and empathetic to their employees—they must listen to
what their employees’ needs are and work to fulfill them. Key Terms o self-actualization
o noun
The final level of psychological development, which can be achieved when all basic and
mental needs are fulfilled. Full Text – 3 Minute Read
Abraham Maslow was a social psychologist who focused on the entirety of human psychological
needs rather than on individual psychological problems. Maslow is best known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the theory explains the
different levels of importance
of human psychological and physical needs.
The general needs in Maslow’s hierarchy include physiological needs (food and clothing), safety
needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs can be used by managers to better understand employees’ needs and
motivations, allowing them to best provide for employees’ needs and generate high productivity
and job satisfaction. The Hierarchy of Needs: Levels of the Pyramid Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Each level of Maslow’s hierarchy outlines a specific category of need, each of which must be
accomplished in a bottom-up order. Managers should correlate their managerial style with the
needs of their employees.
At the bottom of the pyramid are the physiological (or basic) needs of a human being: food,
water, sleep, and sex. The next level is safety needs: security, order, and stability. These two levels are important to the physical survival of the person. Once
individuals have basic nutrition,
shelter, and safety, they attempt to accomplish more.
The third level of need is love and belonging, which are psychological needs; when individuals
have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others, such as
with family and friends. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with
what they have accomplished. This is the esteem level, which includes the need to feel competent
and recognized, such as through status and level of success. Then there is the cognitive level,
where individuals intellectually stimulate themselves and explore. After that is the aesthetic
level, which includes the need for harmony, order, and beauty.
At the top of the pyramid, self-actualization occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony
and understanding because they have achieved their full potential. Once people have reached the
self-actualization stage they focus on themselves and try to build their own image. They may
look at this in terms of feelings such as self-confidence, or by accomplishing a set goal. Hierarchy of Needs and Organizational Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior because it explores a
worker’s motivation. For example, some people are prepared to work just for money, but others
like going to work because of the friends they have made there or the fact that they are respected
by others and recognized for their good work. One conclusion that can be made from Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs in the workforce is, "If a lower need is not met, then the higher ones are
ignored." For example, if employees are worried that they will be fired, and have no job security,
they will be far more concerned about capital accumulation and ensuring their lower rungs can
continue to be met (paying rent, paying bills, etc.) than about friendship and respect at work.
However, if employees are wealthy enough to fulfill their basic needs, praise for good work and
meaningful group relationships may be a more important motivation.
If a need is not met, staff may become very frustrated. For example, if someone works hard for a
promotion and does not achieve the recognition they want, they may become demotivated and
put in less effort. When a need is met it will no longer motivate the person, but the next need in
the hierarchy will become important to that person. Keep in mind that it is not quite as simple in
reality as in a model, and that individuals may have needs that are more complex or difficult to
quantify than the hierarchy suggests. Managers must be perceptive and empathetic to their
employees, they must listen to what their needs are and work to fulfill them. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Brief
Alderfer’s ERG theory, based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, outlines three core needs:
existence, relatedness, and growth. Learning Objective Discuss Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Theory relative to employee needs and motivation
within an organization Key Points ERG Theory posits that there are three groups of core needs: existence (E), relatedness
(R), and growth (G)—hence the acronym "ERG". These groups align with the levels of
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The "existence" needs describe our basic material requirements for living. The "relatedness" needs concern the
maintaining of important interpersonal relationships. The "growth" needs relate to self-actualization and self-esteem. Alderfer also proposed that if an
individual’s needs in a certain category are not met, then
they will redouble their efforts toward fulfilling needs in a lower category. Key Terms o existence
o noun
The state of being or occurring. o relatedness
o noun
The state of being connected, especially by kinship. Full Text – 1 Minute Read Clayton Paul Alderfer (b. 1940) is an American psychologist who further developed
Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs into his own ERG Theory. ERG Theory posits that there are three groups of
core needs: existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G)—hence the acronym "ERG." These
groups align with the Maslow’s levels of physiological needs, social needs, and self-actualization
needs, respectively.
The "existence" needs describe our basic material requirements for living. These include what
Maslow categorized as physiological needs (such as air, food, water, and shelter) and safetyrelated needs (such as health and secure employment and property).
The "relatedness" needs concern the maintaining of important interpersonal relationships. These
needs are based in social interactions with others and align with Maslow’s levels of
love/belonging-related needs (such as friendship, family, and sexual intiamcy) and esteemrelated needs (such as respect of and by others).
Finally, the "growth" needs describe our intrinsic desire for personal development. These needs
align with Maslow’s levels of esteem-related needs (such as self-esteem, confidence, and
achievement) and self-actualization needs (such as morality, creativity, problem-solving, and
acceptance of facts).
Alderfer proposed that if an individual’s needs in a certain category are not met, then they will
redouble their efforts toward fulfilling needs in a lower category. For example, if an individual’s
self-esteem is suffering, they will invest more effort in the relatedness category of needs. McClelland’s Need Theory Brief
David McClelland describes three central motivational paradigms: achievement, affiliation and
power. Learning Objective Examine what McClelland’s Need Theory proposes regarding motivating employees and
fulfilling their needs Key Points McClelland’s Need Theory, created by psychologist David McClelland, is a motivational
model that attempts to explain how the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation
affect people’s actions in a management context. People who are achievement-motivated are driven by the desire to master tasks and
situations. People who are affiliation-motivated are driven by the desire to create and maintain social
relationships. They enjoy belonging to a group and want to feel loved and accepted. People who are power-motivated are driven by the desire to influence, teach, or
encourage others. Each individual is motivated by varying degrees of each of these three categories of
needs. Key Terms o zero-sum
o adjective
Of any system in which all gains are offset by exactly equal losses. o achievement
o noun
The act of performing, obtaining, or accomplishing. o affiliation
o noun
The relationship that results from combining one thing with another. Full Text – 2 Minute Read
Psychologist David McClelland developed Need Theory, a motivational model that attempts to
explain how the needs for achievement, power (authority), and affiliation affect people’s actions in a management context. Need Theory is commonly often taught in
management and
organizational-behavior classes. David McClelland
Psychologist David McClelland created Need Theory. Achievement
People who are strongly achievement-motivated are driven by the desire for mastery. They prefer
working on tasks of moderate difficulty in which outcomes are the result of their effort rather
than of luck. They value receiving feedback on their work. Affiliation
People who are strongly affiliation-motivated are driven by the desire to create and maintain
social relationships. They enjoy belonging to a group and want to feel loved and accepted. They
may not make effective managers because they may worry too much about how others will feel
about them. Power
People who are strongly power-motivated are driven by the desire to influence, teach, or
encourage others. They enjoy work and place a high value on discipline. However, they may take
a zero-sum approach to group work—for one person to win, or succeed, another must lose, or
fail. If channeled appropriately, though, this can positively support group goals and help others in
the group feel competent about their work. Application of Need Theory
Need Theory does not claim that people can be categorized into one of three types. Rather, it
asserts that all people are motivated by all of these needs in varying degrees and proportions. An
individual’s balance of these needs forms a kind of profile that can be useful in determining a
motivational paradigm for them. It is important to note that needs do not necessarily correlate
with competencies; it is possible for an employee to be strongly affiliation-motivated, for
example, but to still be successful in a situation in which his affiliation needs are not met.
McClelland proposes that those in top management positions should have a high need for power
and a low need for affiliation. He also believes that although individuals with a need for
achievement can make good managers, they are not generally suited to being in top management
positions. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Brief Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory states that certain factors cause job satisfaction and other factors
cause dissatisfaction. Learning Objective Analyze Frederick Herzberg’s perspective on motivating employees through his TwoFactor Theory (also known as Motivation-
Hygiene Theory) Key Points According to Herzberg, intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators have an inverse
relationship: intrinsic motivators tend to create motivation when they are present,
whereas extrinsic motivators tend to reduce motivation when they are absent. Intrinsic motivators tend to represent less tangible, more emotional needs, such as
challenging work, recognition, relationships, and growth potential. Extrinsic motivators tend to represent more tangible, basic needs, such as status, job
security, salary, and fringe benefits. Extrinsic motivators are expected and so cause dissatisfaction if they are absent. Intrinsic
motivators, on the other hand, can provide extra motivation. Because of this, satisfaction
and dissatisfaction are independent; one does not necessarily increase exactly as the other
decreases. Management is tasked with differentiating when more job satisfaction is needed
(providing intrinsic motivators) and when less job dissatisfaction is needed (providing
extrinsic motivators). Key Terms o Two-Factor Theory
o noun
A framework, developed by Frederick Herzberg, that suggests there are certain factors in
the workplace that can cause job satisfaction and a separate set of factors can cause
dissatisfaction. o hygiene factors
o noun
Elements of life or work that do not increase satisfaction but that can lead to
dissatisfaction if they are missing. Full Text – 2 Minute Read
The Two Factors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators
Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, also known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory or intrinsic
vs. extrinsic motivation, concludes that there are certain factors in the workplace that can cause
job satisfaction and a separate set of factors that can cause dissatisfaction. It is critical to
emphasize that this is not a linear relationship: the factors that cause satisfaction do not
necessarily negate those that cause dissatisfaction; one does not necessarily increase exactly as
the other decreases. Extrinsic Motivators (Hygiene Factors)
Extrinsic motivators tend to represent more tangible, basic needs—i.e., the kinds of needs
identified in McClelland’s "existence" category of needs in his ERG Theory or in the lower levels
of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Extrinsic motivators include status, job security, salary, and
fringe benefits. Managers must realize that not providing the appropriate and expected extrinsic
motivators will sow dissatisfaction and unmotivated behavior among employees. Intrinsic Motivators (Motivation Factors)
Intrinsic motivators tend to represent less tangible, more emo

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MGT 302 Importance of Motivation Brief
As in some of the assignments in this course, you will draw upon your personal experience for this Module 2 Case assignment. For the assignment, you will consider the
topic of telecommuting and motivation. You will prepare a blog entry that discusses your own experience and applies the background material to the prospect of becoming
a telecommuter.

Case Assignment
In the background materials, you read about some very traditional theories of motivation such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. There is
sometimes a challenge in applying these theories.

Begin with some personal reflection. Consider a time at work when you felt highly motivated. Apply Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory to your
situation. Think about what motivates you personally. Can you apply Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories to yourself? For this assignment, you will discuss these ideas in
a hypothetical situationin which you are offered the opportunity to work remotely, that is, telecommute to your job.

For this Module 2 Case Assignment, you will prepare a blog entry with the title:

My company has offered me a chance to work remotely. Should I telecommute? How can I stay motivated working from home? If I decide to work from home, what can my
company do to help me stay highly motivated?

Your blog entry should discuss the following:

What motivates you?
How do Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory explain your own and other employees’ motivation?
How can employees remain highly motivated when telecommuting? What can they do to motivate themselves? What can the company do to motivate telecommuting employees?
Will you become a telecommuter? Why or why not?
Your blog entry should be the equivalent of a four- to five-page paper. Also, be sure to use in-text citations and a reference list. For administrative purposes,
please add a title page so that your assignment can be readily identified.

Assignment Expectations
Be sure to address the questions presented directly.
Stay focused on the precise assignment questions; do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials
Use reliable and credible sources as your references. If you find articles on the internet, make sure they are from a credible source.
————-

The Importance of Motivation Brief
Motivating employees can lead to increased productivity and allow an organization to achieve
higher levels of output. Learning Objective Identify the importance of generating high levels of motivation in employees within an
organizational behavior framework Key Points Motivation is generally what energizes, maintains, and controls behavior. The role of motivation in the workplace is
straightforward theoretically but is difficult to
actually measure. Salary is often enough motivation to keep employees working for an organization, but it’s
not always enough to push them to fulfill their full potential. Motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higherquality work at a
higher level of efficiency. The opportunity cost in motivating employees is essentially zero. Key Terms o innovation
o noun
The introduction of something new; the development of an original idea. o Opportunity cost o noun
The value of investing in the next best alternative; the value forfeited by taking a
particular route. o productivity
o noun
The rate at which products and services are generated relative to a particular workforce. Full Text – 1 Minute Read
Motivation in the Workplace
Generally speaking, motivation is what energizes, maintains, and controls behavior. As such, it is
clear why it plays an important role in the workplace. But empirically measuring that role is
another matter; it is challenging to capture an individual’s drive in quantitative metrics in order to
ascertain the degree to which higher motivation is responsible for higher productivity. However,
it is widely accepted that motivated employees generate higher value and lead to more
substantial levels of achievement. The management of motivation is therefore a critical element
of success in any business; with an increase in productivity, an organization can achieve higher
levels of output.
Research has shown that motivated employees will: Always look for a "better" way to complete a task Be more quality-oriented Work with higher productivity
and efficiency In summary, motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higherquality work more efficiently. There is no downside—i.e.,
the opportunity cost of motivating
employees is essentially zero, assuming it does not require additional capital to coach managers
to act as effective motivators. Internal and External Motivation
Salary is often enough to keep employees working for an organization, but it’s not always
necessarily enough to push them to fulfill their full potential. Herzberg’s theory emphasizes that
while salary is enough to avoid dissatisfaction, it is not necessarily enough to propel employees to increase their productivity and achievement. In fact, the output
of employees whose
motivation comes solely from salary and benefits tends to decline over time. To increase
employees’ efficiency and work quality, managers must turn to understanding and responding to
individuals’ internal and external motivations. External motives include work environment (e.g.,
cramped cubicle vs. airy, open office); internal motivations include thoughts and emotions (e.g.,
boredom with performing the same task over and over vs. excitement at being given a wide
variety of project types). Internal and external motives
There are four sources of motivation. The three internal motives are needs, cognitions, and
emotions. The fourth source consists of external motives. Perspectives on Motivation Brief Motivation in the workplace is primarily concerned with improving employees’
focus through
the use of incentives. Learning Objective Compare and contrast the organizational behavior theories regarding analyzing and
improving motivation in the workplace Key Points Generally, motivation in the workplace can be thought of through one of four specific
theoretical frameworks: needs-oriented, cognition-oriented, behavior-oriented, and joboriented. In needs-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through fulfilling a
particular
employee’s needs, with anything from salary to a sense of fulfillment. In cognition-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through fulfilling employees’
rational expectation that they be compensated based directly on the amount of value they
provide. In behavior-oriented theories, motivation is achieved through conditioning (reinforcement
and punishment). Conditioning is the implementation of positive incentives to promote
desirable behaviors and negative consequences to discourage undesirable behaviors. In job-oriented theories, motivation is achieved when employees feel fulfilled and
interested in their work; financial compensation is only enough to avoid dissatisfaction. Key Terms o conditioning
o noun
A technique of behavior modification, developed by B.F. Skinner, that utilizes positive
and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment to alter behavior. o incentive o noun
A reward used to motivate employees to perform better. Full Text – 4 Minute Read
From a managerial perspective, very few ideas are more important than the dynamics of
motivation. Understanding what moves employees toward efficiency and fulfillment is at the
core of any manager’s responsibilities. Motivation in the workplace is primarily concerned with
improving employees’ focus, often through pursuing positive incentives and avoiding negative
ones.
Theories of motivation are of course rooted in psychology. An individual must direct their
attention toward a task, generate the necessary effort to achieve that task, and persist in working
toward it despite potential distractions. Various theories have attempted to identify the factors
that contribute to effective employee motivation, most of which are easily divided into four
broad categories: Needs-oriented theories Cognition-oriented theories Behavior-oriented theories Job-oriented theories Needs-Oriented Theories
At its most basic, motivation can be defined as the fulfillment of various human needs. These
needs can encompass a range of human desires, from basic, tangible needs of survival to
complex, emotional needs surrounding an individual’s psychological well-being. Hierarchy of Needs
The most well-known example of a needs-oriented theory of motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Needs. Maslow postulated that needs should be fulfilled in a particular scaffolded order, with
food, water, and shelter in the bottom, most fundamental two tiers and intangible needs such as
fulfillment, self-esteem, and a sense of belonging in the upper three tiers. While this framework
makes a certain amount of logical sense, critics have noted that there have been minimal data
that suggest employees strive to satisfy needs in the workplace in accordance with this
hierarchical framework. But the fundamental idea behind Maslow’s model is that individuals
have various tangible and intangible desires that can be leveraged in the use of motivational
incentives. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs postulates that need must be fulfilled in a hierarchical order, from
basic needs such as food and water to more intangible needs such as self-esteem and a sense of
belonging. Need for Achievement Theory
Atkinson and McClelland proposed the Need for Achievement Theory, which highlights three
particular needs in the context of the workplace: achievement, authority, and affiliation. Atkinson
and McClelland hypothesized that every individual has a need for all three of these intangible
segments of fulfillment but that most individuals lean more toward one of the three. For
example, a salesman with a quota to fulfill would be best paired with an achievement-oriented
manager, as such a goal-oriented approach toward, for example, a specific number of sales would
be highly motivating. Cognition-Oriented Theories
Cognition-oriented theories generally revolve around expectations and deriving equitable
compensation for a given effort or outcome. There are two main cognition-oriented theories:
equity theory and expectancy theory. Equity Theory
Equity Theory is based on the basic concept of exchange. It values the culmination of employee
experience, skills, and performance against their respective compensation and advancement
opportunities. Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory is similarly derived, but it states this relationship through an equation:
Motivation = Expectation (? Instrumentality × Valence). Instrumentality simply refers to the
belief that a level of performance will result in a level of outcome; valence refers to the value of
that outcome.
Essentially, Expectation Theory and Equity Theory demonstrate the value of rewarding an
employee’s investment of time and effort with appropriate compensation. Behavior-Oriented Theories
The underlying concept of behavioral approaches to motivation is rooted in theories of
& quot;conditioning," particularly the work of psychologist B.F. Skinner. Behaviorism stipulates that an
employer should promote positive behavior and deter negative behavior, generally through a
basic rewards system. Variable compensation, as found in many sales jobs, is a prime example of
this concept. When an employee makes a sale, the employer provides a certain portion of income
to the employee that executed that sale. This positive reinforcement serves as a behavior
modifier, motivating the employee to repeat this behavior and make more sales. Job-Oriented Theories
Job-oriented theories adhere to the view that employees are motivated to complete tasks
effectively because of an innate desire to be fulfilled or to contribute and that compensation and
other forms of incentives are less important to them. Two-Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory is the most well known of the job-oriented theories,
despite the fact that it has not been supported by empirical evidence. Herzberg states that salary,
benefits, status, and other tangible benefits for employees can only reduce dissatisfaction and
that intangibles—such as autonomy, natural interest, recognition, and the responsibility of the
work itself—are the true basis of motivation. Work Engagement Theory
Other theories, such as Work Engagement Theory, similarly propose that intellectually fulfilling
and emotionally immersive work is the foundation of a motivated workforce.
Clearly, our understanding of workplace motivation could benefit from further research and
empirical analysis. But the variety of theories also highlights the fact that people can be
motivated by different things in different circumstances. Effective organizational management
requires an understanding of these theories as well as of their possible limitations. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Brief
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs helps managers understand employees’ needs in order to further
employees’ motivation. Learning Objective Diagram Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in the context of organizational motivation and
employee behaviors Key Points Maslow is best known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the
theory explains the different levels and importance of human psychological and physical
needs. It can be used by business managers to better understand employee motivation. The general needs in Maslow’s hierarchy include physiological needs (food and
clothing),
safety needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior
due to it’s
exploration of worker motivation, enabling better managerial practices and higher job
satisfaction. Managers must be perceptive and empathetic to their employees—they must listen to
what their employees’ needs are and work to fulfill them. Key Terms o self-actualization
o noun
The final level of psychological development, which can be achieved when all basic and
mental needs are fulfilled. Full Text – 3 Minute Read
Abraham Maslow was a social psychologist who focused on the entirety of human psychological
needs rather than on individual psychological problems. Maslow is best known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the theory explains the
different levels of importance
of human psychological and physical needs.
The general needs in Maslow’s hierarchy include physiological needs (food and clothing), safety
needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs can be used by managers to better understand employees’ needs and
motivations, allowing them to best provide for employees’ needs and generate high productivity
and job satisfaction. The Hierarchy of Needs: Levels of the Pyramid Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Each level of Maslow’s hierarchy outlines a specific category of need, each of which must be
accomplished in a bottom-up order. Managers should correlate their managerial style with the
needs of their employees.
At the bottom of the pyramid are the physiological (or basic) needs of a human being: food,
water, sleep, and sex. The next level is safety needs: security, order, and stability. These two levels are important to the physical survival of the person. Once
individuals have basic nutrition,
shelter, and safety, they attempt to accomplish more.
The third level of need is love and belonging, which are psychological needs; when individuals
have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others, such as
with family and friends. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with
what they have accomplished. This is the esteem level, which includes the need to feel competent
and recognized, such as through status and level of success. Then there is the cognitive level,
where individuals intellectually stimulate themselves and explore. After that is the aesthetic
level, which includes the need for harmony, order, and beauty.
At the top of the pyramid, self-actualization occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony
and understanding because they have achieved their full potential. Once people have reached the
self-actualization stage they focus on themselves and try to build their own image. They may
look at this in terms of feelings such as self-confidence, or by accomplishing a set goal. Hierarchy of Needs and Organizational Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior because it explores a
worker’s motivation. For example, some people are prepared to work just for money, but others
like going to work because of the friends they have made there or the fact that they are respected
by others and recognized for their good work. One conclusion that can be made from Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs in the workforce is, "If a lower need is not met, then the higher ones are
ignored." For example, if employees are worried that they will be fired, and have no job security,
they will be far more concerned about capital accumulation and ensuring their lower rungs can
continue to be met (paying rent, paying bills, etc.) than about friendship and respect at work.
However, if employees are wealthy enough to fulfill their basic needs, praise for good work and
meaningful group relationships may be a more important motivation.
If a need is not met, staff may become very frustrated. For example, if someone works hard for a
promotion and does not achieve the recognition they want, they may become demotivated and
put in less effort. When a need is met it will no longer motivate the person, but the next need in
the hierarchy will become important to that person. Keep in mind that it is not quite as simple in
reality as in a model, and that individuals may have needs that are more complex or difficult to
quantify than the hierarchy suggests. Managers must be perceptive and empathetic to their
employees, they must listen to what their needs are and work to fulfill them. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Brief
Alderfer’s ERG theory, based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, outlines three core needs:
existence, relatedness, and growth. Learning Objective Discuss Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Theory relative to employee needs and motivation
within an organization Key Points ERG Theory posits that there are three groups of core needs: existence (E), relatedness
(R), and growth (G)—hence the acronym "ERG". These groups align with the levels of
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The "existence" needs describe our basic material requirements for living. The "relatedness" needs concern the
maintaining of important interpersonal relationships. The "growth" needs relate to self-actualization and self-esteem. Alderfer also proposed that if an
individual’s needs in a certain category are not met, then
they will redouble their efforts toward fulfilling needs in a lower category. Key Terms o existence
o noun
The state of being or occurring. o relatedness
o noun
The state of being connected, especially by kinship. Full Text – 1 Minute Read Clayton Paul Alderfer (b. 1940) is an American psychologist who further developed
Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs into his own ERG Theory. ERG Theory posits that there are three groups of
core needs: existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G)—hence the acronym "ERG." These
groups align with the Maslow’s levels of physiological needs, social needs, and self-actualization
needs, respectively.
The "existence" needs describe our basic material requirements for living. These include what
Maslow categorized as physiological needs (such as air, food, water, and shelter) and safetyrelated needs (such as health and secure employment and property).
The "relatedness" needs concern the maintaining of important interpersonal relationships. These
needs are based in social interactions with others and align with Maslow’s levels of
love/belonging-related needs (such as friendship, family, and sexual intiamcy) and esteemrelated needs (such as respect of and by others).
Finally, the "growth" needs describe our intrinsic desire for personal development. These needs
align with Maslow’s levels of esteem-related needs (such as self-esteem, confidence, and
achievement) and self-actualization needs (such as morality, creativity, problem-solving, and
acceptance of facts).
Alderfer proposed that if an individual’s needs in a certain category are not met, then they will
redouble their efforts toward fulfilling needs in a lower category. For example, if an individual’s
self-esteem is suffering, they will invest more effort in the relatedness category of needs. McClelland’s Need Theory Brief
David McClelland describes three central motivational paradigms: achievement, affiliation and
power. Learning Objective Examine what McClelland’s Need Theory proposes regarding motivating employees and
fulfilling their needs Key Points McClelland’s Need Theory, created by psychologist David McClelland, is a motivational
model that attempts to explain how the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation
affect people’s actions in a management context. People who are achievement-motivated are driven by the desire to master tasks and
situations. People who are affiliation-motivated are driven by the desire to create and maintain social
relationships. They enjoy belonging to a group and want to feel loved and accepted. People who are power-motivated are driven by the desire to influence, teach, or
encourage others. Each individual is motivated by varying degrees of each of these three categories of
needs. Key Terms o zero-sum
o adjective
Of any system in which all gains are offset by exactly equal losses. o achievement
o noun
The act of performing, obtaining, or accomplishing. o affiliation
o noun
The relationship that results from combining one thing with another. Full Text – 2 Minute Read
Psychologist David McClelland developed Need Theory, a motivational model that attempts to
explain how the needs for achievement, power (authority), and affiliation affect people’s actions in a management context. Need Theory is commonly often taught in
management and
organizational-behavior classes. David McClelland
Psychologist David McClelland created Need Theory. Achievement
People who are strongly achievement-motivated are driven by the desire for mastery. They prefer
working on tasks of moderate difficulty in which outcomes are the result of their effort rather
than of luck. They value receiving feedback on their work. Affiliation
People who are strongly affiliation-motivated are driven by the desire to create and maintain
social relationships. They enjoy belonging to a group and want to feel loved and accepted. They
may not make effective managers because they may worry too much about how others will feel
about them. Power
People who are strongly power-motivated are driven by the desire to influence, teach, or
encourage others. They enjoy work and place a high value on discipline. However, they may take
a zero-sum approach to group work—for one person to win, or succeed, another must lose, or
fail. If channeled appropriately, though, this can positively support group goals and help others in
the group feel competent about their work. Application of Need Theory
Need Theory does not claim that people can be categorized into one of three types. Rather, it
asserts that all people are motivated by all of these needs in varying degrees and proportions. An
individual’s balance of these needs forms a kind of profile that can be useful in determining a
motivational paradigm for them. It is important to note that needs do not necessarily correlate
with competencies; it is possible for an employee to be strongly affiliation-motivated, for
example, but to still be successful in a situation in which his affiliation needs are not met.
McClelland proposes that those in top management positions should have a high need for power
and a low need for affiliation. He also believes that although individuals with a need for
achievement can make good managers, they are not generally suited to being in top management
positions. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Brief Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory states that certain factors cause job satisfaction and other factors
cause dissatisfaction. Learning Objective Analyze Frederick Herzberg’s perspective on motivating employees through his TwoFactor Theory (also known as Motivation-
Hygiene Theory) Key Points According to Herzberg, intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators have an inverse
relationship: intrinsic motivators tend to create motivation when they are present,
whereas extrinsic motivators tend to reduce motivation when they are absent. Intrinsic motivators tend to represent less tangible, more emotional needs, such as
challenging work, recognition, relationships, and growth potential. Extrinsic motivators tend to represent more tangible, basic needs, such as status, job
security, salary, and fringe benefits. Extrinsic motivators are expected and so cause dissatisfaction if they are absent. Intrinsic
motivators, on the other hand, can provide extra motivation. Because of this, satisfaction
and dissatisfaction are independent; one does not necessarily increase exactly as the other
decreases. Management is tasked with differentiating when more job satisfaction is needed
(providing intrinsic motivators) and when less job dissatisfaction is needed (providing
extrinsic motivators). Key Terms o Two-Factor Theory
o noun
A framework, developed by Frederick Herzberg, that suggests there are certain factors in
the workplace that can cause job satisfaction and a separate set of factors can cause
dissatisfaction. o hygiene factors
o noun
Elements of life or work that do not increase satisfaction but that can lead to
dissatisfaction if they are missing. Full Text – 2 Minute Read
The Two Factors: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators
Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, also known as Motivation-Hygiene Theory or intrinsic
vs. extrinsic motivation, concludes that there are certain factors in the workplace that can cause
job satisfaction and a separate set of factors that can cause dissatisfaction. It is critical to
emphasize that this is not a linear relationship: the factors that cause satisfaction do not
necessarily negate those that cause dissatisfaction; one does not necessarily increase exactly as
the other decreases. Extrinsic Motivators (Hygiene Factors)
Extrinsic motivators tend to represent more tangible, basic needs—i.e., the kinds of needs
identified in McClelland’s "existence" category of needs in his ERG Theory or in the lower levels
of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Extrinsic motivators include status, job security, salary, and
fringe benefits. Managers must realize that not providing the appropriate and expected extrinsic
motivators will sow dissatisfaction and unmotivated behavior among employees. Intrinsic Motivators (Motivation Factors)
Intrinsic motivators tend to represent less tangible, more emo

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