Science Transgender Today

FIRST: Read “Transgender Today”

“There is strong evidence that sexual orientation is largely tied to biology and that initial gender assignment is the strongest predictor of gender identity in the case of intersex children. Researchers have yet to precisely pinpoint the etiology of transsexualism, however. Various studies suggest that both biological and environmental variables may play a role in transgender development, says Eric Vilain, MD, PhD, chief of the division of medical genetics and professor of human genetics, pediatrics and urology at the University of California, Los Angeles.

In 1999, scientists identified anatomic brain differences between transsexuals and nontranssexuals (Journal of Psychosomatic Research (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.). More recently, Vilain and his colleagues determined that genetics may have a mild to moderate effect on transgender development (Biological Psychiatry (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., 2009).

The biological evidence to date is not that strong, though, says Vilain. He points to another study in the April 2010 issue of the International Journal of Andrology (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. showing that fetal exposure to a particular chemical appeared to have an effect on brain development that is linked to gender role behavior. It’s quite possible that being transgender stems from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, Vilain concludes.”

—Eve Glicksman

“Transgender today” in the Monitor on Psychology (2013, Vol. 44, No. 4). (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Next: Using your text book, the article and other sources (you MUST cite where information is coming from! Try to stick to .org and .gov sites). Answer each of the questions in 3-4 sentences and submit here.
 Be sure to answer EACH question. You do not have to include the questions, but please number your answers.

1. What is the APA’s stance regarding transgenderisim?

2. Why is gender identity in the DSM and what implications does that have?

3. According to the article, what experimental results did Colt Meier find in 2011? What are the implications of these findings?

4. Describe the results of the two 2011 studies discussed in the article in regards to harassment and discrimination faced by trans individuals. 
What implications does this have for other gender non-conforming individuals?

5. The article suggests a few ways to perhaps counteract some of the negative outcomes of being gender non-conforming, what are at least three of the ways discussed in the article?

6. Based on what you have read, if you were a school therapist and had a gender non-conforming student (think not cis-gender – trans, bigender, etc.) what types of treatment / therapies would you recommend according to APA guidelines? Make sure you cite here – eg., (Glickman, 2013)!!! (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (LGBTQ+ Definitions for more infomration)

For more information on this topic please see: “Answers to Your Questions About Transgender People, Gender Identity, and Gender Expression (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.”

End with the references for the articles you used (including the one I provided) in APA style.

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