This is an open-book, open-note exam. You may consult other sources. But you may not copy material from other sources, except as direct quotations, and then only brief ones. All sources must be properly footnoted.
LATE EXAMS WILL BE PENALIZED 10 POINTS.
Write essays of about 900 ? 1500 words each (3 ? 5 pages) on TWO of the following questions. The essays should be analytic, not descriptive?i.e. they should contain your own analysis, thought, and criticism, not material taken from other sources or a list or description of events; nevertheless you should muster accurate and pertinent details that support your position. (50 points each)
1. A few years ago, the British historian Richard Overy wrote an analytic account of the Second World War entitled, ?Why the Allies Won the War.?
Suppose you decide to write an essay with the same title about the First World War. Explain the main points you would make and the arguments you would use to support them.
2. A joke current in Great Britain in the early 1920s went as follows:
?How to protect yourself from shark bite while swimming: write ?America won the war? on your trunks; even the sharks won?t swallow that.?
3. The provisions of the Versailles Peace Treaty with Germany (together with the other treaties agreed at the Paris Conference) were the worst possible settlement of the issues of the First World War ? except for all of the other proposals that were made.
Do you agree or disagree? Discuss.
4. War, Clausewitz famously wrote, is a continuation of politics by other means. He meant, I suppose, that nations go to war in order to achieve rational ends that cannot be reached by peaceful means. Did any of the victorious nations achieve the goals for which they fought? (Obviously the defeated nations did not.) Why or why not?