Target Organs & Occupational Diseases
1. Why is the liver a target organ at risk to toxic assault? Your answer must include at least three reasons.
2. Briefly describe the two types of liver injury. Name and explain the three common toxic conditions that are associated with these liver diseases.
3. Why are the kidneys at risk from exposures to blood-borne toxicants?
4. Briefly describe the two main occupational diseases caused by nephro-toxic agents; give examples of these agents.
5. Briefly describe the major functions of the cardiovascular system. List the types of blood cells. Give two examples of toxic agents that have toxicity to the blood.
6. Name and briefly describe the three main heart and blood vessels disorders that can result from occupational exposures to toxic agents. Give at least one example of such agents.
7. Describe the similarities and differences of these conditions: ‘asphyxial hypoxia’ versus ‘cytotoxic hypoxia’. Provide examples of occupational exposures that cause these conditions.
8. Briefly describe the four different kinds of injury to neurons resulting from occupational exposures to neurotoxicants.
9. Outline the male reproductive disorders that can result from occupational exposures to toxic agents. Provide two examples of workplace toxic agents to illustrate your answers.
10. Outline the female reproductive disorders that can result from occupational exposures to toxic agents. Provide two examples of workplace toxic agents to illustrate your answers.
Part B (Module 8 – The Ear and Noise)
11. Describe the two major characteristics of sound waves and relate these two characteristics to human hearing sensitivity and noise-induced hearing loss.
12. Discuss the roles of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) and the three tiny ossicles (bones) in the middle ear, with respect to the process of hearing.
13. Describe how the cochlea senses the sound energy and how the frequency and amplitude of the sound wave influence this hearing apparatus.
14. Explain the significance of the 4000 Hz notch in noise-induced hearing loss.
15. Of the three weighting network – A, B, and C, which one best mimics the human hearing responses and explain why?
16. Name the variables that are used to describe the noise exposure criteria prescribed under the US OSHA and the ACGIH. Highlight two areas that distinguish these two sets of criteria and explain why you think one is more protective than the other.
17. By doing an Internet search or using other resources available to you, find out the noise exposure criteria prescribed under these four jurisdictions: Canadian federal workplaces (e.g. airports); Ontario; British Columbia; Quebec. You’re required to summarize the criteria under the headings of: criterion level; exchange rate; other mandatory requirements. Put your answers in table format.
18. A noise survey was carried out in a machine shop and recorded the following: one milling machine (83 dBA), one grinding machine (93 dBA), and one mechanical punch press (97 dBA). There is one operator at each machine. As an occupational health professional, you are asked to give at least two pieces of advice to control noise exposure,under the given exposure conditions, based on:
a) Engineering controls
b) Administrative controls
c) Personal protective equipment
Part C (Module 9 –Thermal Stress and Vibration)
19. Occupational heat stress exposure is of interest to OH&S professionals because it can result in a disease process as well as being a safety concern. Explain this statement.
20. Give the heat balance equation. Use this equation to explain the two sources of occupational heat exposure.
21. Describe the two physiological defense mechanisms against heat stress exposure.
22. Name and briefly describethe variables that are considered in the setting of the heat stress TLVs.
23. Briefly describe the two major health concerns for workers who experience cold stress. Give examples of occupational settings where such exposure can happen.
24. Describe the variables of the Wind Chill Index and explain how it is used to assess exposure to cold hazard.
25. Discuss the principles of exposure controls that are common to both heat and cold hazard exposure. Use at least one example to illustrate the application of each of these control measures.
26. Name the four factors that are considered in describing the hazards of human vibration exposure. Of the four, select two factors and elaborate their significance in causing injurious health effects.
27. Discuss the health effects of hand-arm vibration exposure. Name three occupational settings where you may find hand-arm vibration exposure.
28. Do either (a) or (b):
a) Using the internet-based resources or other resources available to you, find one article from a scientific journal (published within the last three years) that discussed hand-arm vibration exposure – you are asked to give the title and author(s) of the article, the journal name, number, date and a one paragraph summary of this article. In addition, you are required to highlight at least one aspect of this article that is not discussed in the OHS508 course learning materials (Module 9).
b) Find an Internet web site on ‘Hand-arm vibration exposure’ – you are asked to comment on pros and cons of this particular site as a resource for occupational health and safety professional. In addition, you are required to highlight at least one aspect of this website that is not discussed in the OHS508 course learning materials (Module 9).
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