Advanced practice roles are divided into four categories ? certified registered nurse anesthetist, clinical nurse specialist, certified nurse-midwife, and nurse practitioner.
Each profession had the forces that have influenced the development of that category.
During Civil War there were many wounded soldiers who required surgeries, however, there were more patients than doctors and because of that nurses were trained to administer anesthesia. The force that influenced the development of nurse anesthetist was shortage of medical staff and increasing number of wounded soldiers who needed surgery.
The profession of nurse ? midwives profession was forced by the high mortality rate of newborns and women.
According to our textbook the clinical nurse specialist role was developed because of the World War II. It was noted that many soldiers who actively participated in the war suffered from mental disorder. Furthermore, it was discovered that many patients with psychiatric disorders were treated with cruelty.
The fourth role is nurse practitioner. This specialization arose because increasing number of immigrants who lived in poverty and needed professional help.
In my opinion the force of high newborn and mother mortality had the most significant impact because it is amazing that