What Is a Job Analysis and How Does It Affect Human Resources Management?
Think about a job or position you have held. Over time, did you think of ways you could do it better? Did you analyze the tasks you were doing and conclude they should be done by someone else or vice versa? If so, you were doing an informal analysis of your job. A job analysis is the systematic process of collecting information about all of the parameters of a job—its basic responsibilities, the behaviors, skills, and the physical and mental requirements of the people who do it.
A job analysis should also outline the tools needed to do the job, the environment and times at which it needs to be done, with whom it needs to be done, and the outcome or performance level it should produce.Footnote Normally, a manager or an HR manager such as a job analyst is responsible for collecting the information for a job analysis. These people rely on the cooperation of employees and their supervisors to gather the information needed for the analysis of jobs.
Carefully reviewing the Chapter 4 discussion on Job Analysis and using the information given there to complete the project will be critical. Use the “Critical Incident Approach” and the “Competency-Based Approach” to Job Analysis.(these can be found online)
Please avoid asking personal questions that might be viewed as inappropriate by the job holder. Make sure that your job description is derived from the answers to your questions given by the job holder. The complete answers given by the jobholder and any other supporting relevant information should be in the appendix.
Here is how you should approach the writing, organizing, and structuring of your Job Analysis Assignment.
Having a cover page is important with any assignment. The cover page should have your complete name, and title of the assignment. The cover page should contain information regarding which section of the HR class you are in and the time it meets. The date that you are turning in the assignment should be on the cover page. You should have a brief abstract on the cover page as well. Have a Table of Contents in the next page.
Your Job Analysis assignment should have five sections as given below and these should be clearly marked using subtitles. In addition, in some of the sections, you will need to have subsections. I give you the structure below that you should use.
Section 1 is your Executive Summary. This should be about two double spaced pages (20%).
In the Executive Summary, you should do the following: Describe and summarize this field project in your own words. How did you go about this project? Which organization did you contact and what does this company do? Which position (give the title) in this company did you select for your job analysis? Is this an exempt or a non-exempt position?
How did you go about collecting data for the job analysis? (Specify the method or combination of methods used such as interviews, observation, questionnaires, etc.). Which individual or individuals did you collect the data from (through interviews and observations – give positions, names, and dates). Were you able to verify the validity of the data collected through other sources (such as the supervisor of the person you interviewed)? Based on your Job Description and Job Specification, what are your observations regarding the adequacy of the current selection procedures and the performance standards for this job? What are your recommendations to improve these?
Section 2: Preparation for the Job Analysis. Answer each question. Two double spaced pages (20%).
1. How did you prepare to conduct the job analysis?
2. Why did you select the method or methods that you did?
3. Reference the questions that you prepared in advance of the interview of the job holder and give the answers that you received from the jobholder (put these in the appendix only)
4. How did you derive these questions?
5. Did you arrange to observe the job holders or spend some time with them at work?
6. How did you plan to verify the information collected?
Section 3: Conducting the Job Analysis (Answer each question). Two double spaced pages (20%).
1. Where did you interview the job holder or job holders?
2. How long did the interview or interviews last? `
3. Were you able to ask all your questions and get adequate information?
4. Were you able to observe the job holder at work?
5. Were you able to verify the information by speaking to the supervisor or other qualified experts?
6. Was there anything you could have done to further enhance the data collection?
Section 4 : Job Description and Job Specification (Make sure that this fits and is consistent with the answers you received in the appendix). You should use the format in Chapter 4 but can enhance it or modify it if you want to be more descriptive). Two to three double spaced pages (30%).
Section 5: Conclusion: Describe what you learned in doing this project. One double spaced page (10%).