Questions:

  1. What is this course about?

1.1         Course description

In this capstone course you will build upon the ICT knowledge gained throughout the degree program by developing skills in enterprise architecture planning (EAP) and in enterprise application integration (EAI). Using EAP, you will learn to create architectures that define and describe the data, applications, and technology needed to support organisations. In applying EAI, you will gain experience in creating strategic business solutions using Web services and middleware to integrate the functionality of an organisation’s existing applications, commercial packaged applications, and new code.

1.2         Course content

  • Conceptual, logical, component, and operational views of Enterprise Information Architecture
  • Information service lifecycle management
  • Service Oriented Architecture and Web Services standards
  • Information delivery in Web 2.0
  • Business analytics and optimization
  1. Unit value

12 units

Page 2

Course Outline: ICT321  Architecture and Systems Integration

  1. How does this course contribute to my learning?
Specific Learning OutcomesAssessment TasksGraduate Qualities
On successful completion of thisYou will be assessed on theCompleting these tasks successfully
course you should be able to:learning outcome in task/s:will contribute to you becoming:
   
Creation of systems.2Creative and critical thinkers.
   
Apply initiative to solving problems1 and 2Empowered.
competently in the discipline.  
Apply communication or1 and 3Engaged.
collaboration skills to specific  
problems.  
Apply discipline specific knowledge1, 2 and 3Knowledgeable.
and skills to problems.  
Understand sustainability issues1 and 3Sustainability-focussed.
within the discipline.  
  1. Am I eligible to enrol in this course?

Refer to the Coursework Programs and Awards – Academic Policy for definitions of “pre-requisites, co-requisites and anti-requisites

4.1         Enrolment restrictions

Nil

4.2         Pre-requisites

ICT112 and (ICT211 or ICT220 or ICT221)

4.3         Co-requisites

Nil

4.4         Anti-requisites

Nil

4.5         Specific assumed prior knowledge and skills

N/A

  1. How am I going to be assessed?

5.1         Grading scale

Standard – High Distinction (HD), Distinction (DN), Credit (CR), Pass (PS), Fail (FL)

Page 3

Course Outline: ICT321  Architecture and Systems Integration

5.2Assessment tasks     
TaskAssessment TasksIndividualWeightingWhat is theWhen should IWhere
No. or Group%duration /submit?should I
    length? submit it?
1IT Consultant’sIndividual20%2000 wordsWeek 5, FridayOnline via
 Architectural    Blackboard
 Report based on a    SafeAssign
 case study     
2SystemsIndividual30%N/AWeek 12, FridayOnline via
 Integration in    Blackboard
 Practice    SafeAssign
3Final examinationIndividual50%N/ACentralIn exam
     examination periodvenue
   100%   
       

Assessment Task 1: IT Consultant’s Architectural Report based on a case study

Goal:             You will demonstrate your knowledge of Analysis and Design at an enterprise level.

Product:       You will work individually on a formal proposal for a business detailing the architectural options and the advantages and disadvantages of the options for a business case study.

The report is to be styled as a formal management report and will be marked on the relevancy and synthesis of the content as well as the presentation of the report.

Format:        Individual

Criteria         Assessment criteria will be handed out with the assignment details.

Assessment Task 2: Systems Integration in Practice

Goal:             You will demonstrate your ability to integrate heterogeneous systems into a cohesive application. You will be given a case study and will develop an application to suit the case study’s functionality needs.

Product:       An individual project integrating a number of local and online services and resources.

Format:        Individual

Criteria         The assessment criteria will be supplied with the exercises. These will examine the functionality of the application, its user interface, code structure and readability.

Generic skill assessedSkill assessment level
Applying technologiesGraduate

Assessment Task 3: Final examination

Goal:             You will demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the course content.

Product:       A two-hour closed book exam to be held during the scheduled examination period. The date and time of the exam will be advised by Student Administration during the semester.

The examination will cover all lecture, reading and tutorial material from weeks 1 to 12. Format: Individual

Criteria         Understanding of requisite knowledge covered within the course

Generic skill assessedSkill assessment level
Applying technologiesGraduate

Page 4

Course Outline: ICT321  Architecture and Systems Integration

5.3         Additional assessment requirements

Plagiarism

In order to minimise incidents of plagiarism and collusion, this course may require that some of its assessment tasks, when submitted to Blackboard, are electronically checked through SafeAssign. This software allows for text comparisons to be made between your submitted assessment item and all other work that SafeAssign has access to.

Eligibility for Supplementary Assessment

Your eligibility for supplementary assessment in a course is dependent of the following conditions applying:

  1. The final mark is in the percentage range 47% to 49.4%
  2. The course is graded using the Standard Grading scale
  3. You have not failed an assessment task in the course due to academic misconduct

5.4         Submission penalties

Late submission of assessment tasks will be penalised at the following maximum rate:

  • 5% (of the assessment task’s identified value) per day for the first two days from the date identified as the due date for the assessment task.
  • 10% (of the assessment task’s identified value) for the third day
  • 20% (of the assessment task’s identified value) for the fourth day and subsequent days up to and including seven days from the date identified as the due date for the assessment task.
  • A result of zero is awarded for an assessment task submitted after seven days from the date

identified as the due date for the assessment task.

Weekdays and weekends are included in the calculation of days late. To request an extension you must contact your course coordinator to negotiate an outcome.

  1. How is the course offered?
6.1Directed study hours  
On campus Lecture: 1 hour per week  
On campus Computer workshop: 2 hours per week  
6.2Course activities  
 TeachingWhat key concepts/content will I learn?What activities will I engage in to learn
  Week / the concepts/content?
  Module   
   Directed StudyIndependent Study
    ActivitiesActivities
  1IntroductionLecture andTextbook and
   • Challengescomputersupplementary
   • Visionworkshopreading list
  2IT Governance and EIALecture andTextbook and
   • Data domainscomputersupplementary
   • Information governanceworkshopreading list
   • Information security  
   • Introduction to EIA  
  3EIA ModellingLecture andTextbook and
   • Enterprise architecture overviewcomputersupplementary
   • EIA Reference Architectureworkshopreading list
   • EIA Conceptual mode  

Page 5

Course Outline: ICT321  Architecture and Systems Integration

4EIA Modelling – Component andLecture andTextbook and
 Operational modelscomputersupplementary
 • EIA Component Modelworkshopreading list
 • EIA Operational Model  
5Application integrationLecture andTextbook and
 • EAI concepts, types and key issuescomputersupplementary
 • Hub-and-Spoke and ESB approaches toworkshopreading list
 EAI  
6Enterprise resource planning systemsLectureTextbook and
 • ERP Systems(no workshop)supplementary
 • ERP lifecycle and implementation reading list
7Service Oriented ArchitectureLectureTextbook and
 • Concepts of Service and SOA(no workshop)supplementary
 • SOA Reference Architecture reading list
  • Introduction to Enterprise Application Integration
8Web services and SOAP, and EIILecture andTextbook and
 • Web Services concepts and underlyingcomputersupplementary
 technologiesworkshopreading list
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • Introduction to Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI)
  • Enterprise Information Integration
  • Extract, Transform and Load
9RESTful services and MashupsLecture andTextbook and
 • RESTful Web Servicescomputersupplementary
 • Web 2.0 and AJAXworkshopreading list
  • Mashups
  • Introduction to Web 3.0
10Cloud ComputingLecture andTextbook and
 • Concept and featurescomputersupplementary
 • Cloud service and delivery modelsworkshopreading list
 • Scalability  
 • Introduction to non-relational databases  
11Data WarehousingLecture andTextbook and
 • OLTP and OLAPcomputersupplementary
 • Data warehouseworkshopreading list
12Business Intelligence and AnalyticsLecture andTextbook and
  computersupplementary
  workshopreading list

Please note that the course activities may be subject to variation.

Page 6

Course Outline: ICT321  Architecture and Systems Integration

  1. What resources do I need to undertake this course?

7.1         Prescribed text(s)

Please note that you need to have regular access to the resource(s) listed below:

AuthorYearTitlePublisher
Mario Godinez, Eberhard Hechler, Klaus2010The Art of Enterprise InformationIBM Press
Koenig, Steve Lockwood, Martin Architecture: A Systems-Based Approach 
Oberhofer, Michael Schroeck for Unlocking Business Insight 

7.2         Required and recommended readings

Lists of required and recommended readings may be found for this course on its Blackboard site. These materials/readings will assist you in preparing for tutorials and assignments, and will provide further information regarding particular aspects of your course.

7.3          Specific requirements

N/A

7.4         Risk management

Health and safety risks have been assessed as low. It is your responsibility to research and understand risks of specific courses and to review the USC’s health and safety principles by viewing the online induction training for students.

  1. Links to relevant University policies and procedures

For more information on Academic Learning & Teaching categories including:

  • Assessment: Courses and Coursework Programs
  • Review of Assessment and Final Grades
  • Administration of Central Examinations
  • Student Academic Misconduct
  • Students with a Disability

http://www.usc.edu.au/university/governance-and-executive/policies-and-procedures#academic-learning-and-teaching

Answers:

The introduction of technology has changed the way industries perform. The need for operations management makes industries to introduce information technology to improve their productivity. Managing information properly is essential to running an organization well. In middle and low income countries, the finance industry is more computerized compared to the health industries. Not all hospitals have implemented digital health record systems. Shifting from physical data modeling into enterprise information systems creates the need to establish procedures for implementation.

An architectural design and component relationship diagrams of the hospital operations are illustrated. The architecture demonstrates the fundamental organization of the system with its components. A component relationship diagram outlines the relationship between the system’s components.  The architecture will give the plan on which the system will be implemented.

Sharing of healthcare information is among the challenges in patient information systems. Security and keeping track of information by consumers becomes more cumbersome with increasing amounts of data in an organization. A unified information strategy needs to be used to help manage increasing amounts of data. Sustainability of the information system can be limited due to resource constraints like maintenance, upgrades and repairs. These issues are discussed and assessed in this report.

This report also discusses how the Digitizing health project can integrate and manage its ‘person centered system’. Strategies on how the applications used by Victoria Department of Health and Human Services (VDHHS) could be integrated are also discussed. Integration includes transforming data, migrating content and providing a unified view for a process or customer. Having information architecture and a unified information strategy leads to proper information governance.

Architecture is the fundamental design of a system consisting of its components and their relationship to each other. It defines the “layout of components that make up a system”.  A systems’ architecture guides the deployment of the system’s components. Integrating a healthcare facility’s departments in enterprise architecture helps in allocation of resources to overcome incompatibility issues. The integration supports all workers in VDHHS to achieve its objectives (Muriyesu, 2016). The architecture overview would help orient new members to VDHHS.

The main enterprise functions supported by “Digitizing health” are hospital management, patient care, administration in the hospital, research, education and analytics. Changes within these functions must be periodically updated for coordination within the system. The diagram below summarizes information processing activities by classifying them as Hospital functions

5

Figure 1 Hospital functions

Patient care

Patient care function involves admission of patients, planning of the patients’ treatment and organizing the patient’s treatment, executing the treatment plan and discharging the patient.

In patient admission, the patient’s data is recorded together with their medical history. Each patient is uniquely identified. Other details kept include appointment schedule, medical and administrative admission, and visitor information. A case is created to summarize a patient’s stay from admission through discharge in the administrative admission function. The details recorded are insurance data, admitting physician, patient’s relatives and the services offered to the patient. If there are changes in the patient’s record the system is updated. Each time an update is made, decision making and planning for the patient’s treatment is done.

Medical reports from previous lab tests are availed for other hospital functions like analysis and are made available during the whole stay. Information about bed occupied by patient is kept at the information desk to inform the patient’s visitors and other hospital statistics.

4

Figure 2 patient admission process

Clinical procedures are discussed and planned. When new information is available the process is repeated. Internal or external experts are consulted depending on the complexity of the situation. Patients are involved in this function.  Orders are made and samples submitted back to the responsible department. Recording data allows for data statistics, financial report, quality management and computerized decision making.

Hospital administration

Hospital administration guarantees financial stability and success of the hospital. Patient administration, archiving a patient’s information, accounting on costs, controlling, quality management, information management, financial accounting and facility management

In archiving patient information function, documents containing patient records are created and stored. Legal requirements are considered. Both computer-based and paper-based storage methods are used. Enough space for storage of records is required for long term use.

Cost accounting investigates what costs are incurred, where the costs are incurred and the activities in which the costs incur. The time period and scope of costs are defined. Financial accounting uses information from billing.

Information management

3

Figure 3 Information management function

Information management helps in planning a system’s architecture. It monitors its operations and development. It is decomposed into

  1. Strategic information management-This function involves the processing of information in an enterprise and helps to establish strategies for the information system’s evolution.
  2. Tactical information management- This function involves the specific enterprise application elements that are manipulated. This function results to an information system.

Research management includes documentation of research activities and the management of funds from a third party. It involves decisions on carrying out research activities.

Volume, variety, velocity and veracity are the four main challenging areas of data. According to Adrian (2013), volume is the quantity of data being manipulated in order to obtain required outcome. Variety involves data formats. It represents the type of data being manipulated.  Velocity involves data streaming speed. It is the speed at which data moves form one point to another. The points can be a user interface. Veracity involves the trustworthiness of data.

Apart from the internet, hospitals and medical offices generate records of different patients. The data is used to generate reports that ensure continuity of the organizations. The growing volume of data for analysis has led to the research and formation of the four data areas known as the “big data”. Big data includes audio and video, 3D models, simulations, photos and location data.  VDHHS produces medical reports and financial records in large volumes. The information produced can be either structured or unstructured. Structured data could be information entered into the system’s spreadsheet for example patient details. The unstructured data is streamed in the internet such as videos of services offered.

Data volume is a challenge because in order to perform manipulation and analysis of big data a lot of resources are required. Higher processing power is needed to achieve higher data processing speeds. Developing effective infrastructure requires higher costs. Efforts to compress the data and analyzing it can be ineffective because it takes time. The data volume could be unlimited. VDHHS produces unlimited financial and patients’ data. Results from the research conducted also need to be analyzed.  Decompressing takes almost the same time as compressing. This process delays display of results. In order to be able to mine through large data volumes, methods such as Online Analytical Solutions are used. This solution consists of tools and multidimensional databases that would allow easy navigation and extraction of data from different viewpoints. It identifies the component’s relationships in a database for a more intuitive retrieval (Adrian, 2013).

Numerous requests are sent using different devices. These devices include laptops, tablets and mobile phones. Patients can access the hospital’s website to make appointments. A doctor can use a workstation to access the medical reports and view medical procedures in waiting. The hospital’s management may want to retrieve information about the current financial state, researches that have been done and health records of the facility. All the information being requested is accessed from a central information system. The transfer rates are limited while the requests are unlimited. The manager trying to retrieve records from all departments may have a difficult time to do real-time data streaming. This can be solved by compressing the data being sent. But due to the data volume challenge, this may delay sending and receiving of information. Investing in good infrastructure still remains a solution (Adrian, 2013).

The challenge in data variety is how to sort the data in order for it to be readable to all users accessing it. The result should not be ambiguous. The system sending the data and the system retrieving and interpreting the data are the variables involved in sorting. The issue in these two keys is that they might not be compatible in terms of content being transferred. The manager might be accessing presentations on research findings. At the same time a patient might be booking an appointment from their home. Both users are accessing the same database. The system might receive these requests unsorted and misunderstand what request is sent by a respective user. To avoid this, the systems that send data are standardized in order to send data in an array.

In veracity, the integrity of data is considered. If the laboratory is sending lab reports to the doctor for review, the doctor should receive the reports as sent from the lab. Else the system would not be reliable. There should be duplicates of the data being transmitted in other locations for example the ‘cloud’, to be used a references in case of information loss.

MapReduce  is a common implementation for handling “big data”. It involves creating a map of the scattered content for easy accessibility and reducing by forming a smaller set of tuples from the mapped content. Apache Hadoop is a mining and sorting technology used to store and process large amounts of data by dividing the data across multiple infrastructures for processing using programming models. Hadoop is used in research and production.  It scales up from single servers to multiple machines offering local computation and storage. It also detects and handles failures at the network application layer. VDHHS should deploy this technology as a starting point to help solve the “big data challenges”.

One of the building blocks of “Digitizing health” is system interoperability and integration. Legacy applications, internal Web services, and external Web services, some external services provided by business partners and others are from public service providers such as Google Map and Google Search need to be integrated using solutions that are scalable.

Enterprise application integration (EAI) integrates applications and data sources for easy sharing of business processes and data (Carne, 2016). There are two integration architectures used, that is, Point to point and middleware.  Point to point architecture is easy to use and implement. However, it is disadvantageous because of scalability. Its efficiency reduces with increase in number of systems being implemented. The middleware architecture has equal number of integration points and systems. Adding and replacing applications does not make changes to other applications.

There are four main integration methods used. These are data-level integration, User-level integration, application level and method-level integration. In data-level integration, the implementation is based on push or pull. Database links or stored procedures are used to push data into other databases. Pull based integration is used when an application requires passive notification from another application.

User-level integration can be scripting or proxy based. It ties integration logic to user interface code. In scripting, the code of integration is embedded into the user interface.  This method is used by mainframes and client /server applications. When scripting logic is added to client/server applications, integration levels increase and more changes occur making it difficult to maintain.

Application-level integration is the commonly used method. It uses application’s integrated APIs. It preserves and application’s data integrity. It is transparent to the application being integrated. It allows for invocation of business logic for data integrity.

Method-level integration is the least used. An application aggregates common processes in different applications. It is used when applications being integrated have a similar APIs. The applications must support a Remote Procedure Call. It is disadvantageous because of application coupling between components. They get affected when updates are made to APIs.  It is used in a distributed component (Fenner, 2002).

VDHHS should deploy the middleware integration architecture. This will allow for scalability and changes to be made to applications when necessary without affecting other applications. The applications in VDHHS have APIs for different applications. It should therefore use application based integration. This method will help realize the hospital’s security and interoperability principle because it invokes business logic.

A unified information system is important to plan the activities of a heath facility. Information about patient records, the billing system and researches conducted by the facility should be accessible whenever needed and credible. The information gathered from all departments is bulk and it all needs processing. Processing bulk data is inefficient in terms of time, security and accuracy. The characteristics of data are volume, velocity, veracity and variety. They are challenges faced in bulk data collection and storage. Using technologies like Hadoop could help manage the data manipulation in VDHHS.

An architecture overview diagram communicates the conceptual understanding of an information system. It provides a high level vision of the architecture and scope of the information system. It orients new project members on the functions of a system. It summarizes the functions of a system in a diagram.

In order to ensure credibility, the appropriate application integration architecture and method of implementation should be deployed. The applications in VDHHS are from different parties hence have different APIs. The hospital should deploy the middleware integration architecture and use the application-level integration method.

References

Adrian, A. (2013). Big data challenges. database systems journal, [online] 4. Available at: http://www.dbjournal.ro/archive/13/13_4.pdf [Accessed 16 Aug. 2018].

Crane, M. (2016). Enterprise Application Integration (Eai), Service-Oriented Architecture (Soa) & Middleware In Enterprise Architecture.

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Reference Architecture (RA). (2014). California Enterprise Architecture Framework.

Fenner, J. (2002). Enterprise Application Integration Techniques.

Framework and Standards for Country Health Information Systems. (2012). 2nd ed. [ebook] Italy. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/country_monitoring_evaluation/who-hmn-framework-standards-chi.pdf [Accessed 16 Aug. 2018].

Mitra, T. (2008). Documenting software architecture, Part 3: Develop the architecture overview. [online] IBM Developer Works. Available at: https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/ar-archdoc3/ar-archdoc3-pdf.pdf [Accessed 16 Aug. 2018].

Moucheraud, C. (2017). Sustainability of health information systems: a three-country qualitative study in southern Africa. BMC health services research. [online] Available at: https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-016-1971-8 [Accessed 16 Aug. 2018].

Muriyesu, F. (2016). Architectural Design Of The National Health Information System For Rwanda. [online] Available at: https://dspace.cc.tut.fi/dpub/bitstream/handle/123456789/24141/Muriyesu.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 16 Aug. 2018].

Parker, K. (2017). Why you need a unified information strategy. CMS wire. [online] Available at: https://www.cmswire.com/information-management/why-you-need-a-unified-information-strategy/ [Accessed 16 Aug. 2018].

Winter, A., Haux, R. and Ammenwerth, E. (2010). health infromation systems: architectures and strategies.

 

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