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The prospects for a sustainable society

Assignment Topic: A personal and reflective essay on the prospects for a sustainable society and how, if at all, it might be achieved.

This is an individual assignment which is intended to develop your thinking and understanding of the debate surrounding sustainable development. The intention of theis assessment is to allow you as individuals to become personally better informed of the debate and arguments for a sustainable society, whether and how it might be achieved and what role tourism is playing and can play in any such changes.
The starting point will be the chapter Can Modern-day Prophets Redirect Society? taken from a book Environmentalists: Vanguard for a New Society, (1984) by Lester Milbrath (to be provided to members of the class). The chapter concerns social change, environmental threats, and whether science and technology does or does not offer the means for a secure future for humanity and others.
It sets up two competing arguments for social change based on different and incompatible worldviews or “paradigms”. The chapter provides the background for the assessment, and indeed the overall course, and seeks to get you to consider where you stand on these issues, and why. Milbrath raises a number of questions in this chapter on the prospects for a sustainable society, and how it may be best achieved.

o Where do you stand on these issues? Why?
o Do you believe nature should be preserved or should it form the basis for producing material goods?
o Do you believe there are limits to human and economic growth?
o Are energy and other resources constraints on human development?
o Should we accept environmental risks to promote growth?
o Are humans seriously damaging the environment?
o What role should the market, government, corporations, scientists, NGOs, tourism businesses, and the public play in these issues?
o Who and how should we decide how we live our lives?

This assignment requires you to:

(1) Milbarth review and reflection: The identification of the issues raised in Milbrath’s chapter, and where you personally stand on these and why (approximately 1000-1500 words).
(2) Lecture program critique and reflection. The MHR280 course includes a series of lectures, each associated with published empirical research. One of these aspects of the course will be written up and incorporated into your reflective essay. This part of your reflective essay will need to outline the research context (the issue/s in question), critique the study and its findings. Then outline how this case study informs your thinking on the issues you have identified in (1). (approximately 1500 words).
(3) Conclude your essay. Remember, this is a personal and reflective piece of writing which should clearly outline your views on the issues that are addressed in this essay (approximately 300-500 words).

Reading List:
Global (macro) scale:
Higham, J., Ellis, E., & Maclaurin, J. (2018). Tourist Aviation Emissions: A Problem of Collective Action. Journal of Travel Research, 0047287518769764.
Spector, S., Higham, J.E.S. & Doering, A. (2017). Beyond the biosphere: Tourism, outer space, and sustainability. Tourism Recreation Research, 42(3): 273-283.
Peeters, P., Higham, J.E.S., Kutzner, D., Cohen, S. & Gössling, S. (2016). Are technology myths stalling aviation climate policy? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 44:30-42. 10.1016/j.trd.2016.02.004
Higham, J.E.S., Cohen, S.A., Cavaliere, C.T., Reis, A.C. & Finkler, W. (2016). Climate change, tourist air travel and radical emissions reduction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 111:336-347. Special Issue on Sustainable Tourism.
Young, M., Markham, F., Reis, A. & Higham, J.E.S. (2015). ‘Flights of fantasy’: A theoretical reformulation of the ‘flyers’ dilemma’. Annals of Tourism Research 54: 1–15. DOI: http://10.1016/j.annals.2015.05.015
Young, M., Higham, J.E.S. & Reis, A. (2014). Up in the Air: A conceptual critique of the flying addiction. Annals of Tourism Research. 41:51-64.
Higham, J.E.S., Cohen, S.A., & Cavaliere, C.T. (2014). Climate change, discretionary air travel and the ‘flyers’ dilemma’. Journal of Travel Research. 53(4): 462-475. DOI: 10.1177/0047287513500393.
Higham, J.E.S., Cohen, S.A., Peeters, P. & Gössling, S. (2013). Psychological and behavioural approaches to understanding and governing sustainable mobility. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 21(7): 949-967.
Cohen, S.A., Higham, J.E.S. & Cavaliere, C.T. (2011). Binge flying: Behavioural addiction and climate change. Annals of Tourism Research 38(3): In press (July 2011). doi:10.1016/j.annals.2011.01.013

Higham, J.E.S. & Cohen, S.A. (2011). Canary in the coalmine: Norwegian attitudes towards climate change and extreme long-haul air travel to Aotearoa/New Zealand. Tourism Management 32(1): 98-105.

National (meso) scale:
Higham, J.E.S., Haukeland, J.V., Hopkins, D., Vistad, O.I., Lindberg, K. & Daugstad, K. (2016). National Parks policy and planning: A comparative analysis of friluftsliv (Norway) and the dual mandate (New Zealand). Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events 8(2):146-175.
Higham, J.E.S. & Bejder, L. (2008). Managing wildlife-based tourism: Edging slowly towards sustainability? Current Issues in Tourism 11(1):63-74. doi: 10.2167/cit345.0
Higham, J.E.S. & Carr, A. 2003a. Wildlife tourism and the protection of rare and endangered endemic species in New Zealand: An analysis of visitor experiences. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 8(1): 25-36.
Higham, J.E.S. & Carr, A. 2003b. Defining ecotourism in New Zealand: Differentiating between the defining parameters within a national/regional context. Journal of Ecotourism. 2(1): 17-32.
Higham, J.E.S. & Carr, A. 2002a. Profiling visitors to Ecotourism Operations. Annals of Tourism Research 29(4): 1168-1171.
Orchiston, C. (2010). Seismic risk in the New Zealand Southern Alps: Understanding and preparedness of tourism operators. Seminar presentation, Department of Tourism, University of Otago. iTunesU presentation. PhD student, Department of Tourism, University of Otago. (Podcast).

Local (micro) scale:

Higham, J.E.S. 1998. Tourists and Albatrosses: The dynamics of tourism at the Northern Royal Albatross Colony, Taiaroa Head, New Zealand Tourism Management 19(6):521-533.
Lusseau, D. & Higham, J.E.S. (2004). Managing the impacts of dolphin-based tourism through the definition of critical habitats: The case of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. Tourism Management 25(5): 657-667.
Higham, J.E.S., Lusseau, D. & Hendry, W. (2008). The viewing platforms from which animals are observed in the wild: A discussion of emerging research directions. Journal of Ecotourism 7(2/3):132-141.
Finkler, W. & Higham, J.E.S. (2004). The human dimensions of whale watching: An analysis based on viewing platforms. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(1): 103-117.
Higham, J.E.S., Bejder, L. & Lusseau, D. (2009). An integrated and adaptive management model to address the long-term sustainability of tourist interactions with cetaceans. Environmental Conservation 35(4): 294-302.

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