What’s happening in communication?

ommunication and Influence

What’s happening in communication?

Your brain turns sound waves into meaning

And vice versa

How do we turn what we mean into something someone else can understand?

Need shared knowledge and experiences.

Neural entrainment

 

Conversational Norms

Turntaking

And when to jump in

Speed

Tone of voice

Nonverbal Cues

Facial expression

Eye contact

Hand gestures

Proximity

Regional Differences in the US

New York

Fast

Okay for multiple people to talk at the same time

Okay to make comments to strangers

Regional Differences, continued

Southern US

Slower

One person at a time speaks

People don’t make comments to strangers

What do they think of each other?

Cross Cultural Norms

OR

Directness and Indirectness

Get to the point

Imply what is wanted

“It’s cold in here.”

Should you:

Shut the window?

Agree that it’s cold?

High Context and Low Context cultures

High context culture needs less explicit communication

Shared understanding, expectations

Low context culture requires explicit details

Face

Tied to respect and dignity

Important not to embarrass others

Yes or No?

“Yes, I agree.”

“Yes, I heard what you said.”

Sometimes considered rude to say “No.”

Gender and Communication

Conversational Rituals

Establishing status

Seeking consensus

Credit for Ideas

Women make suggestions but don’t get credit

Typically don’t talk as much as men

Men may take credit

Not maliciously

Not polite to fight or draw attention to oneself

Hedging

I’m not sure, but…..

I don’t know, but……

I’m no expert, but………

Sounds less confident

Apologizing

Women do a lot of apologizing

May just be politeness

May be perception that something merits apology

Makes you sound like you did something wrong.

Applying for Jobs

Women don’t apply unless they meet almost all criteria

“They won’t hire me because I only have 6 years of experience and the ad says 7.”

Men see a couple criteria that match

I’m overqualified

Influence

Robert Cialdini

Influence: How and Why People Agree to Things

Pre-suasion: A Revolutionary Way to Influence and Persuade

6 “Weapons of Influence”

Reciprocity

Commitment and consistency

Social Proof/Consensus

Liking

Authority

Scarcity

22

Why do these work?

Many work because we respond almost automatically to norms.

Many con men / women are experts

23

Reciprocity

I give you something or do you a favor, and you feel obligated to do something in return

Hare Krishna fundraising

Charities that send you address labels, etc.

Free trial of anything

24

Social Proof / Consensus

Everybody else does it (has it, likes it, etc)

Conformity

Asch

Jonestown

Social loafing

Kitty Genovese

25

Liking

Similarity

Attractiveness

Compliments

Familiarity

26

Authority

Experimenter in Milgram study

Titles

Clothing & other status badges

27

Scarcity

Something in short supply is more attractive than something that is plentiful.

Psychological reactance

If freedom to choose something is threatened, people react to the threat

 

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